Tuesday, April 09, 2019

Horizon Health Network Moncton Hospital notified more than 700 patients after two cases of CJD were diagnosed both patients had undergone cataracts surgery before being diagnosed

Statement on low risk of transmitting CJD through cataract surgery

(Moncton) April 8, 2019 - We would like to confirm Horizon's The Moncton Hospital has identified two separate cases where a patient with probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) had cataract surgery in our facility. After careful review it was determined that these two cases are totally unrelated. CJD is a rare degenerative brain disorder that leads to dementia.

Patients who received the same procedure in the following weeks have no significant risk of contracting the protein from the same medical instruments being used.

Horizon is confident the risk of transmitting CJD from using the same instruments is not significant. Horizon uses modern cleaning and sterilization processes that make the transmission nearly impossible.

Horizon notified 103 patients of the risk by letter upon discovering the first case of CJD on January 15, 2019. We notified an additional 601 patients on February 14,2019 following the discovery of the second probable case.

Patients were encouraged to call Horizon to speak with either their ophthalmologist or a member of Horizon's team. We can confirm that 43 patients contacted Horizon to learn more about their potential risk.

The transmission of CJD by surgical instruments has only been documented on seven occasions worldwide, occurring more than 20-40 years ago, and none of the CJD cases have been linked to cataract surgery.

Even though the risk of one of our patients contracting CJD is extremely low, Horizon is committed to being transparent and wanted to share this information with patients that received cataract surgery at Horizon's The Moncton Hospital.

We also shared this information with the family physicians for each patient.

Due to the rarity of having two separate CJD cases identified, we have disclosed this information to the Public Health Agency of Canada.

April 8, 2019 7:10 pm Updated: April 9, 2019 8:57 am

N.B. health authority contacts over 700 patients after detecting rare degenerative brain disease

 By Alexander Quon

File - The Horizon Health Network has notified more than 700 patients after two cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease were diagnosed. Both patients had undergone cataracts surgery before being diagnosed.

File - The Horizon Health Network has notified more than 700 patients after two cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease were diagnosed. Both patients had undergone cataracts surgery before being diagnosed.

New Brunswick’s Horizon Health Network has identified two separate cases in which a patient with a probable case of a degenerative brain disease had cataract surgery at the Moncton Hospital — spurring them to contact 700 patients who underwent similar procedures at the facility.

The health authority confirmed to Global News on Monday evening that two cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were detected at the facility but are unrelated.

Horizon directed Global News to a video that they published on their YouTube channel earlier on Monday about CJD when asked for information on incidents. The video is narrated by Dr. Gordon Dow, the chief of infectious diseases at Moncton Hospital.

READ MORE: Young Edmonton mother with rare form of dementia passes away

In the video, Dow says that the first case of CJD was diagnosed after a patient was admitted to hospital in December. Six weeks later another man was diagnosed with the same degenerative brain disease.

Both of the patients had undergone surgery before being diagnosed with CJD.

“We could not find any reason for this but statistical probability. It just so happens that two rare events happened at once,” said Dow.

Dow stresses in the video that the risk of transmission of CJD is “very low.”

What is CJD

According to the Alzheimer Society of Canada, CJD is a rare and fatal brain disease that is caused by a protein in the brain called prion.

In its natural form, prion is harmless. But when it is abnormal it becomes toxic to brain cells.

The disease is difficult to diagnose and it can be several years before a person who is exposed to CJD has the abnormal prions form.

The society says CJD can affect everyone differently but that the disease progresses quickly once symptoms appear. People with CJD rarely live beyond a year.

CJD can be “accidentally transmitted during a medical procedure involving human tissues” but can also be transmitted from exposure to a cattle infected with a variant of CJD known as mad cow disease.

CJD can also happen sporadically, often in elderly people without warning, or be the result of a genetic mutation.

READ MORE: What is mad cow disease? Quick facts about BSE

Informing patients

Dow stresses in the video that the risk of transmission of CJD is “very low” during cataract surgeries because the protein that results in the disease is not significantly present in the area of the where the surgery is carried out.

The chief of infectious diseases also says that modern sterilization methods used on surgical tools reduce the likelihood of transmission.

In the video — which, as of 7:30 p.m. Monday, has not been shared on Horizon’s official social media accounts — Dow says that transparency is important in medicine, even when there is low to no risk.

As a result, Dow says after detecting the first case, the cataract surgeon notified “each and every one” of 103 patients by phone who had “potentially been exposed” to the medical instruments used during the surgery.

WATCH: Families continue to come forward after Moncton nurse fired for administering labour-inducing drugs

The patients also received a letter informing them of the low risk of transmission.

The second incident prompted Horizon to notify 601 patients who had been potentially exposed. Dow says they couldn’t call all of the patients but they were informed through a letter.

A note has also been placed on all of the patient’s charts in order to flag that they warrant extra attention.

“The risk looks like zero and if its not zero it’s too low to measure,” Dow said in the video.

“So wouldn’t it be appropriate to be vigilant with the patients who had been exposed to the instruments.”

Dow says that the incident has made the hospital stress the importance of keeping track of tools used during surgeries.

Any patient who has questions or concerns are urged to contact 1-844-225-0220

If you’ve received a letter as a result of the incident and are interested in talking to Global News please email us at newbrunswick@globalnews.ca.

1: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994 Jun;57(6):757-8 

*** Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to a chimpanzee by electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery. ***

Gibbs CJ Jr, Asher DM, Kobrine A, Amyx HL, Sulima MP, Gajdusek DC. 

Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of 

Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 

Bethesda, MD 20892. 

Stereotactic multicontact electrodes used to probe the cerebral cortex of a middle aged woman with progressive dementia were previously implicated in the accidental transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) to two younger patients. The diagnoses of CJD have been confirmed for all three cases. More than two years after their last use in humans, after three cleanings and repeated sterilisation in ethanol and formaldehyde vapour, the electrodes were implanted in the cortex of a chimpanzee. Eighteen months later the animal became ill with CJD. This finding serves to re-emphasise the potential danger posed by reuse of instruments contaminated with the agents of spongiform encephalopathies, even after scrupulous attempts to clean them. 

PMID: 8006664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 

O17 Evaluation of iatrogenic risk of CJD transmission associated with corneal transplantation 

Douet JY. (1), Cassard H. (1), Huor A. (1), Lacroux C. (1), Haïk S. (2), Lugan S. (1), Tillier C. (1), Aron N. (1), Ironside J.W. (3), Andreoletti O. (1) 

(1) UMR INRA-ENVT 1225, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, France.(2) Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR-S 1127, CNRS UMR 722, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epinière, G.H. PitiéSalpêtrière, Paris, France.(3) National CJD Research and Surveillance Unit Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK. 

Sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD) has been documented to be accidentally transmitted by contaminated corneal transplants. To date, only one case is considered as definite, while 5 other suspect cases are classified as probable or possible. However, the specific transmission risk associated with this widely-performed transplantation procedure has never been studied. 

In this study, bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the human PrP confirmed the presence of infectivity in the cornea of 2 sCJD patients. Infectivity was also detected in other ocular tissues (optic nerve, retina, vitreous body, choroid and lacrymal gland) from one of these patients. 

Based on these results, we investigated the presence of infectivity in the cornea of different TSE animal models. In conventional mice (RML strain) as well as in sheep (PG127 scrapie), infectivity could only be detected in the corneas collected at the late stage of the disease incubation phase. 

In parallel to these experiments, corneas collected at different stages of the incubation period in infected mice and sheep were grafted into healthy recipients. 

Our results showed that corneas collected during the late asymptomatic phase or in affected animals were able to transmit TSE infectivity. Importantly, after the death of the recipients (up to 2.5 years after surgery) infectivity could still be detected in the grafted cornea. 

These data confirm the potential for sCJD transmission by corneal grafts. They also provide crucial data for the assessing the TSE transmission risk associated with various other ophthalmologic procedures. 



Tuesday, November 20, 2018

Eyes of CJD patients show evidence of prions Finding could help early diagnosis, raise concern for eye exams and transplants.

Singeltary 1999


i said that 20 years ago about this very thing. but did anyone listen...no!

prepare for the storm...terry

year 1999 to 2000

Subject: RE-The Eyes Have It (cjd) and they could be stealing them from your loved one... "pay back time" 

Date: Sat, 16 Sep 2000 10:04:26 -0700 

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." 

Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy 

######### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########

Greetings List Members,

I hate to keep kicking a madcow, but this still is very disturbing to me. Not only for the recipient of the cornea's, but as well, for the people whom would be operated on, using the same tools that were used to put those stolen cornea's in the recipient with. No history of this donor or his family (re-ffi), or anything would be known, using stolen organs and or tissue's. I just think this is not only wrong, but very dangerous to a great many other people, as this is one of the most infectious tissues of TSE's. It seems that this practice of stealing organ/tissue happens more than we think. Anyway, the family of the victim which had their cornea's stolen, are now suing. In the example I used with my Mother, if 3 months before, she would have been in a catastrophic accident (car wreck, whatever), no autopsy (for whatever reason), no family (for whatever reason), she lay in the morgue, and after 4 hours, they come steal the cornea's, lot of people could have been infected, just because of lack of medical history of donor/family. It may be hypothetical, but very real. We need to stop the spread of this disease.

kind regards, Terry S. Singeltary Sr., Bacliff, Texas USA 


Previous story--

Cadaver corneal transplants -- without family permission...

Cadaver corneal transplants -- without family permission Houston, Texas channel 11 news 28 Nov 99

Reported by Terry S. Singeltary Sr.son of CJD victim

"It was a story about how the Lions eye bank were harvesting corneas from victims in the Morgue, without their consent. Under Texas law, this appears to be legal (remember Texas has the Veggie liable law). Even if Family says no, this appears to happen, from what the news story said.

They said the only way to prevent this, is to fill out a form, stating not to have this done. So if you don't fill out the form, they can do this. How many people don't know about the form? 

 This is not only disgusting and appalling, it could be highly infectious. Without proper background checking of the donors, on their physical history, checking on past dementia, and/or family history, some of these unfortunate victims, could be passing a human TSE. 

 Response Jill Spitler Clevelland Eye Bank: 

 "No, we are not stealing.........Yes, you do have such a law in the state of Texas, but not all your state Eye Banks utilize the law. The Eye Bank that you're speaking of is only one of 43 certified Eye Bank throughout the USA. 

 And there are measure taken per the Medical Standards of the Eye Bank Association of America, the certifying body for eye banks and per FDA regulations to address those concerns that you speak of. 

 I would suggest that those interested/concern with transplant contact their local agencies. The Eye Bank Association of America has a web. site . Further if anyone has problems contacting or finding out about their local organization(s), call me or e-mail me I would be glad to help. My e-mail address is jill@clevelandeyebank.org

 Terry Singeltary responds: 

 "Explain this to the family in Houston who went to their loved ones funeral, only to find out that the loved one that was in the casket, had their corneas removed without their permission, without the consent of the victim or it's family. They would not have known it, only for the funny look the victim had. So, they questioned, only to find out, the corneas, had in fact, been removed without consent. 

 I call that stealing, regardless what the law states. This type of legal grave robbing is not a logical thing to do without knowing any type of background of the victims medical past, which really will not prove anything due to the incubation period. Eye tissue being potentially a highly infective source, there are risks here. 

 Should they not at least know of the potential ramifications of TSE's (the person receiving the corneas)? 

 Should there not be some sort of screening? 

 Should there be some sort of moral issue here? 

 If this is the case, and in fact, they can come take your corneas, without your consent, then what will they start taking next, without your consent? 

 Lets look at a hypothetical situation: 

 What would happen if my Mom (DOD 12-14-97 hvCJD) would have gotten into a car wreck and died, before the symptoms of CJD appeared. Not much money, so there was no autopsy. What would have happened to that recipient of those infecting corneas?" 

 Comment (webmaster): Actual transmission of CJD by means of corneal transplant may or may not be rare. The incidence of infectivity in older people could be fairly high; this is not to be confused with the lower incidence of symptomatic (clinical) CJD. It is very unlikely that familial CJD would have been diagnosed in earlier generations; however, without interviewing the family even known kindreds would not be excluded. 

 In blood donation, a much stricter policy is followed, even though corneal transplant may be far more dangerous (being a direct link to the brain and not going through purification steps). 

 Since highly sensitive tests for pre-clinical CJD are now available, it would make sense to screen corneas for CJD, just as they are screened for AIDS, hepatitus, and a host of other conditions. 

Eye procedure raises CJD concerns

BySTEVE MITCHELL, Medical Correspondent

WASHINGTON, Nov. 18 (UPI) -- A New York man who died from a rare brain disorder similar to mad cow disease in May underwent an eye procedure prior to his death that raises concerns about the possibility of transmitting the fatal disease to others, United Press International has learned.

The development comes on the heels of the announcement Thursday by U.S. Department of Agriculture officials of a possible second case of mad cow disease in U.S. herds.

Richard Da Silva, 58, of Orange County, N.Y., died from Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, an incurable brain-wasting illness that strikes about one person per million.

Richard's wife Ann Marie Da Silva told UPI he underwent a check for the eye disease glaucoma in 2003, approximately a year before his death. The procedure involves the use of a tonometer, which contacts the cornea -- an eye tissue that can contain prions, the infectious agent thought to cause CJD.

Ann Marie's concern is that others who had the tonometer used on them could have gotten infected.

A 2003 study by British researchers suggests her concerns may be justified. A team led by J.W. Ironside from the National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit at the University of Edinburgh examined tonometer heads and found they can retain cornea tissue that could infect other people -- even after cleaning and decontaminating the instrument.

"Retained corneal epithelial cells, following the standard decontamination routine of tonometer prisms, may represent potential prion infectivity," the researchers wrote in the British Journal of Ophthalmology last year. "Once the infectious agent is on the cornea, it could theoretically infect the brain."

Prions, misfolded proteins thought to be the cause of mad cow, CJD and similar diseases, are notoriously difficult to destroy and are capable of withstanding most sterilization procedures.

Laura Manuelidis, an expert on these diseases and section chief of surgery in the neuropathology department at Yale University, agreed with the British researchers that tonometers represent a potential risk of passing CJD to other people.

Manuelidis told UPI she has been voicing her concern about the risks of corneas since 1977 when her own study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, showed the eye tissue, if infected, could transmit CJD.

At the time the procedure was done on Richard Da Silva, about a year before he died, she said it was "absolutely" possible he was infectious.

The CJD Incidents Panel, a body of experts set up by the U.K. Department of Health, noted in a 2001 report that procedures involving the cornea are considered medium risk for transmitting CJD. The first two patients who have a contaminated eye instrument used on them have the highest risk of contracting the disease, the panel said.

In 1999, the U.K. Department of Health banned opticians from reusing equipment that came in contact with patients' eyes out of concern it could result in the transmission of variant CJD, the form of the disease humans can contract from consuming infected beef products.

Richard Da Silva was associated with a cluster of five other cases of CJD in southern New York that raised concerns about vCJD.

None of the cases have been determined to stem from mad cow disease, but concerns about the cattle illness in the United States could increase in light of the USDA announcement Thursday that a cow tested positive on initial tests for the disease. If confirmed, this would be the second U.S. case of the illness; the first was detected in a Washington cow last December. The USDA said the suspect animal disclosed Thursday did not enter the food chain. The USDA did not release further details about the cow, but said results from further lab tests to confirm the initial tests were expected within seven days.

Ann Marie Da Silva said she informed the New York Health Department and later the eye doctor who performed the procedure about her husband's illness and her concerns about the risk of transmitting CJD via the tonometer.

The optometrist -- whom she declined to name because she did not want to jeopardize his career -- "didn't even know what this disease was," she said.

"He said the health department never called him and I called them (the health department) back and they didn't seem concerned about it," she added. "I just kept getting angrier and angrier when I felt I was being dismissed."

She said the state health department "seems to have an attitude of don't ask, don't tell" about CJD.

"There's a stigma attached to it," she said. "Is it because they're so afraid the public will panic? I don't know, but I don't think that the answer is to push things under the rug."

New York State Department of Health spokeswoman Claire Pospisil told UPI she would look into whether the agency was concerned about the possibility of transmitting CJD via tonometers, but she had not called back prior to story publication.

Disposable tonometers are readily available and could avoid the risk of transmitting the disease, Ironside and colleagues noted in their study. Ann Marie Da Silva said she asked the optometrist whether he used disposable tonometers and "he said 'No, it's a reusable one.'"

Ironside's team also noted other ophthalmic instruments come into contact with the cornea and could represent a source of infection as they are either difficult to decontaminate or cannot withstand the harsh procedures necessary to inactivate prions. These include corneal burrs, diagnostic and therapeutic contact lenses and other coated lenses.

Terry Singletary, whose mother died from a type of CJD called Heidenhain Variant, told UPI health officials were not doing enough to prevent people from being infected by contaminated medical equipment.

"They've got to start taking this disease seriously and they simply aren't doing it," said Singletary, who is a member of CJD Watch and CJD Voice -- advocacy groups for CJD patients and their families.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention spokeswoman Christine Pearson did not return a phone call from UPI seeking comment. The agency's Web site states the eye is one of three tissues, along with the brain and spinal cord, that are considered to have "high infectivity."

The Web site said more than 250 people worldwide have contracted CJD through contaminated surgical instruments and tissue transplants. This includes as many as four who were infected by corneal grafts. The agency noted no such cases have been reported since 1976, when sterilization procedures were instituted in healthcare facilities.

Ironside and colleagues noted in their study, however, many disinfection procedures used on optical instruments, such as tonometers, fail. They wrote their finding of cornea tissue on tonometers indicates that "no current cleaning and disinfection strategy is fully effective."

Singletary said CDC's assertion that no CJD cases from infected equipment or tissues have been detected since 1976 is misleading.

"They have absolutely no idea" whether any cases have occurred in this manner, he said, because CJD cases often aren't investigated and the agency has not required physicians nationwide report all cases of CJD.

"There's no national surveillance unit for CJD in the United States; people are dying who aren't autopsied, the CDC has no way of knowing" whether people have been infected via infected equipment or tissues, he said.

Ann Marie Da Silva said she has contacted several members of her state's congressional delegation about her concerns, including Rep. Sue Kelly, R-N.Y., and Sen. Charles Schumer, D-N.Y.

"Basically, what I want is to be a positive force in this, but I also want more of a dialogue going on with the public and the health department," she said.

Friday, December 04, 2009

New guidance on decontamination of trial contact lenses and other contact devices has been revealed for CJD AND vCJD


Of Grave Concern Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease


CDC Eyes of CJD patients show evidence of prions concerns for iatrogenic transmission 


Medical Devices Containing Materials Derived from Animal Sources (Except for In Vitro Diagnostic Devices) Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff Document issued on March 15, 2019 Singeltary Submission

TUESDAY, MARCH 12, 2019 

Early preclinical detection of prions in the skin of prion-infected animals 

SUNDAY, MARCH 10, 2019 

National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined¹ Updated Feb 1, 2019 Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy VPSPr



April 2, 2019 

Studies Further Support Transmissibility of Alzheimer Disease–Associated Proteins 

Tracy Hampton, PhD JAMA. 2019;321(13):1243-1244. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.2650 

Recent research provides additional evidence that certain medical and surgical procedures can transmit amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins associated with Alzheimer disease from person-to-person.

 Image description not available. The work follows up on a 2015 Nature study published by the same research team that studied the brains of patients in the United Kingdom who developed the rare, degenerative, fatal brain disorder Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) as a result of childhood treatment with cadaver-derived human growth hormone (hGH) preparations contaminated with prions.

Postmortem brain tissue examination revealed that these patients also developed cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which is a common neuropathologic finding in Alzheimer disease caused by the accumulation Aβ in the brain’s arterial walls. Although these individuals never had clinical features of Alzheimer disease, the authors argued that they likely would have developed cerebral hemorrhage and dementia had they not died at a relatively young age from CJD. The findings raised the possibility of human-to-human transmission of not just prions, but also Aβ. However, the study was unable to determine whether the amyloid pathology observed was caused by the transmission of Aβ from contaminated hGH treatment, and some experts argued that there could be equally plausible explanations for the findings.

In their latest study, also published in Nature, the investigators sought to move beyond the association revealed in their earlier work. To do so, the scientists obtained and biochemically analyzed old batches of cadaver-derived hGH preparations stored as powder at room temperature for more than 30 years. Experiments revealed that certain batches contained substantial levels of Aβ as well as tau, another protein associated with Alzheimer disease pathogenesis that forms neurofibrillary tangles.

The team also conducted biological experiments to determine the transmissibility of Aβ. Previous research has shown that inoculation of small amounts (or seeds) of misfolded Aβ isolated from the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease induced build-up of Aβ plaques in nonhuman primates. Brain extracts from humans or mice that develop Aβ plaques can also accelerate plaque accumulation when administered to mice expressing a mutant amyloid precursor protein, which makes them susceptible to amyloid pathology.

Susceptible mice intracerebrally inoculated with hGH samples, as well as brain homogenates prepared from patients with autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer disease, seeded the formation of Aβ plaques. By midlife, the mice developed extensive amyloid pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. These effects were not seen in mice inoculated with saline, normal brain homogenate, or recombinant hGH. The findings suggest that contaminated hGH was indeed the likely cause of amyloid angiopathy the authors previously reported in patients who died of hGH treatment-induced CJD.

“We have now provided experimental evidence to support our hypothesis that amyloid-β pathology can be transmitted to people from contaminated materials,” said senior author John Collinge, MD, FRCP, of the University College London Institute of Neurology, in the United Kingdom. The scientists are now testing whether tau protein can be similarly transmitted.

There has been considerable interest in investigating whether various misfolded proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases might be transmissible in a prion-like fashion. The potential for propagation and spread of such proteins has important implications for both prevention and treatment of Alzheimer disease, among others. Currently, there is no evidence to suggest Alzheimer disease is contagious, and studies indicate that it’s not transmissible through blood transfusions. However, these most recent findings underscore the need for additional studies investigating the potential risk of Aβ transmission by certain neurosurgical or medical procedures, especially those using biological material prepared from the human central nervous system.

“We cannot yet confirm whether medical or surgical procedures have ever caused Alzheimer’s disease itself in people or how common it might be to acquire amyloid pathology in this way. It will be important to review risks of transmission of amyloid pathology by other medical procedures still done today, including instruments used in brain surgery, drawing on other research and what we already know about accidental CJD transmission,” said Collinge.

In an Acta Neuropathologica study published earlier last year, Collinge’s colleagues at the UCL Institute of Neurology studied the medical records of 4 patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and they found that all 4 had undergone neurosurgery 2 or 3 decades earlier as children or teenagers, and none carried pathogenic mutations associated with early-onset Aβ pathology.

Research indicates that Aβ is durable and resists standard hospital sterilization methods. The observation that transmission was possible from samples maintained at ambient temperature since the mid-1980s indicates that Aβ seeds are remarkably stable.

“The good news is that the findings do not include evidence that Alzheimer disease, or any other tauopathies or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, are transmissible via ordinary human-human contact. The findings do, however, emphasize the need to exercise caution when administering human-derived biologicals therapeutically,” said George Bloom, PhD, an Alzheimer disease expert at the University of Virginia who was not involved with this study. “In practice, that means routinely screening such biologicals for prion-like forms of amyloid-beta, tau, and other known or suspected prions, such as alpha-synuclein, before they are given to humans.”

Published: 09 September 2015

Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy

Zane Jaunmuktane, Simon Mead, Matthew Ellis, Jonathan D. F. Wadsworth, Andrew J. Nicoll, Joanna Kenny, Francesca Launchbury, Jacqueline Linehan, Angela Richard-Loendt, A. Sarah Walker, Peter Rudge, John Collinge & Sebastian Brandner

Re-Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy 

>>> The only tenable public line will be that "more research is required’’ <<< 

>>> possibility on a transmissible prion remains open<<< 

O.K., so it’s about 23 years later, so somebody please tell me, when is "more research is required’’ enough time for evaluation ? 

Re-Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy 

Nature 525, 247?250 (10 September 2015) doi:10.1038/nature15369 Received 26 April 2015 Accepted 14 August 2015 Published online 09 September 2015 Updated online 11 September 2015 Erratum (October, 2015) 

snip...see full Singeltary Nature comment here; 

Alzheimer's disease

let's not forget the elephant in the room. curing Alzheimer's would be a great and wonderful thing, but for starters, why not start with the obvious, lets prove the cause or causes, and then start to stop that. think iatrogenic, friendly fire, or the pass it forward mode of transmission. think medical, surgical, dental, tissue, blood, related transmission. think transmissible spongiform encephalopathy aka tse prion disease aka mad cow type disease... 

Commentary: Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy

Self-Propagative Replication of Ab Oligomers Suggests Potential Transmissibility in Alzheimer Disease 

*** Singeltary comment PLoS *** 

Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ? 

Posted by flounder on 05 Nov 2014 at 21:27 GMT 




[9. Whilst this matter is not at the moment directly concerned with the iatrogenic CJD cases from hgH, there remains a possibility of litigation here, and this presents an added complication. 

There are also results to be made available shortly 

(1) concerning a farmer with CJD who had BSE animals, 

(2) on the possible transmissibility of Alzheimer’s and 

(3) a CMO letter on prevention of iatrogenic CJD transmission in neurosurgery, all of which will serve to increase media interest.]

re-Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy 

Nature 525, 247?250 (10 September 2015) doi:10.1038/nature15369 Received 26 April 2015 Accepted 14 August 2015 Published online 09 September 2015 Updated online 11 September 2015 Erratum (October, 2015)

Singeltary Comment at very bottom of this Nature publishing;

re-Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy

I would kindly like to comment on the Nature Paper, the Lancet reply, and the newspaper articles.

First, I applaud Nature, the Scientist and Authors of the Nature paper, for bringing this important finding to the attention of the public domain, and the media for printing said findings.

Secondly, it seems once again, politics is getting in the way possibly of more important Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE Prion scientific findings. findings that could have great implications for human health, and great implications for the medical surgical arena. but apparently, the government peer review process, of the peer review science, tries to intervene again to water down said disturbing findings.

where have we all heard this before? it's been well documented via the BSE Inquiry. have they not learned a lesson from the last time?

we have seen this time and time again in England (and other Country's) with the BSE mad cow TSE Prion debacle.

That 'anonymous' Lancet editorial was disgraceful. The editor, Dick Horton is not a scientist.

The pituitary cadavers were very likely elderly and among them some were on their way to CJD or Alzheimer's. Not a bit unusual. Then the recipients ? 

who got pooled extracts injected from thousands of cadavers ? were 100% certain to have been injected with both seeds. No surprise that they got both diseases going after thirty year incubations.

That the UK has a "system in place to assist science journalists" to squash embargoed science reports they find 'alarming' is pathetic.

Sounds like the journalists had it right in the first place: 'Alzheimer's may be a transmissible infection' in The Independent to 'You can catch Alzheimer's' in The Daily Mirror or 'Alzheimer's bombshell' in The Daily Express

if not for the journalist, the layperson would not know about these important findings.

where would we be today with sound science, from where we were 30 years ago, if not for the cloak of secrecy and save the industry at all cost mentality?

when you have a peer review system for science, from which a government constantly circumvents, then you have a problem with science, and humans die.

to date, as far as documented body bag count, with all TSE prion named to date, that count is still relatively low (one was too many in my case, Mom hvCJD), however that changes drastically once the TSE Prion link is made with Alzheimer's, the price of poker goes up drastically.

so, who makes that final decision, and how many more decades do we have to wait?

the iatrogenic mode of transmission of TSE prion, the many routes there from, load factor, threshold from said load factor to sub-clinical disease, to clinical disease, to death, much time is there to spread a TSE Prion to anywhere, but whom, by whom, and when, do we make that final decision to do something about it globally? how many documented body bags does it take? how many more decades do we wait? how many names can we make up for one disease, TSE prion?

Professor Collinge et al, and others, have had troubles in the past with the Government meddling in scientific findings, that might in some way involve industry, never mind human and or animal health.

FOR any government to continue to circumvent science for monetary gain, fear factor, or any reason, shame, shame on you.

in my opinion, it's one of the reasons we are at where we are at to date, with regards to the TSE Prion disease science i.e. money, industry, politics, then comes science, in that order.

greed, corporate, lobbyist there from, and government, must be removed from the peer review process of sound science, it's bad enough having them in the pharmaceutical aspect of healthcare policy making, in my opinion.

my mother died from confirmed hvCJD, and her brother (my uncle) Alzheimer's of some type (no autopsy?). just made a promise, never forget, and never let them forget, before I do.

I kindly wish to remind the public of the past, and a possible future we all hopes never happens again. ...

[9. Whilst this matter is not at the moment directly concerned with the iatrogenic CJD cases from hgH, there remains a possibility of litigation here, and this presents an added complication. There are also results to be made available shortly (1) concerning a farmer with CJD who had BSE animals, (2) on the possible transmissibility of Alzheimer's and (3) a CMO letter on prevention of iatrogenic CJD transmission in neurosurgery, all of which will serve to increase media interest.]

Singeltary Comment at very bottom of this Nature publishing;


In Alzheimer's Mice, Decades-Old Human Cadaveric Pituitary Growth Hormone Samples Can Transmit and Seed Amyloid-Beta Pathology

Subject: CWD GSS TSE PRION SPINAL CORD, Confucius Ponders, What if?


***> In conclusion, sensory symptoms and loss of reflexes in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome can be explained by neuropathological changes in the spinal cord. We conclude that the sensory symptoms and loss of lower limb reflexes in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome is due to pathology in the caudal spinal cord. <***

***> The clinical and pathological presentation in macaques was mostly atypical, with a strong emphasis on spinal cord pathology.<*** 

***> The notion that CWD can be transmitted orally into both new-world and old-world non-human primates asks for a careful reevaluation of the zoonotic risk of CWD. <***

***> All animals have variable signs of prion neuropathology in spinal cords and brains and by supersensitive IHC, reaction was detected in spinal cord segments of all animals.<*** 

***> In particular the US data do not clearly exclude the possibility of human (sporadic or familial) TSE development due to consumption of venison. The Working Group thus recognizes a potential risk to consumers if a TSE would be present in European cervids.'' Scientific opinion on chronic wasting disease (II) <***

Saturday, February 2, 2019 

CWD GSS TSE PRION SPINAL CORD, Confucius Ponders, What if?

Wednesday, January 16, 2019 

Multiple system atrophy prions replicate in Tg(SNCAA53T) mice and induce glial pathology throughout the limbic system




Transmission of amyloid-β protein pathology from cadaveric pituitary growth hormone December 14, 2018

Tuesday, December 12, 2017 

Neuropathology of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and immunoassay of French cadaver-sourced growth hormone batches suggest possible transmission of tauopathy and long incubation periods for the transmission of Abeta pathology


Friday, January 29, 2016

Synucleinopathies: Past, Present and Future, iatrogenic, what if?


vpspr, sgss, sffi, TSE, an iatrogenic by-product of gss, ffi, familial type prion disease, what it ???

Greetings Friends, Neighbors, and Colleagues,

vpspr, sgss, sffi, TSE, an iatrogenic by-product of gss, ffi, familial type prion disease, what it ???

Confucius is confused again.

I was just sitting and thinking about why there is no genetic link to some of these TSE prion sGSS, sFFi, and it’s really been working on my brain, and then it hit me today.

what if, vpspr, sgss, sffi, TSE prion disease, was a by-product from iatrogenic gss, ffi, familial type prion disease ???

it could explain the cases of no genetic link to the gss, ffi, familial type prion disease, to the family.

sporadic and familial is a red herring, in my opinion, and underestimation is spot on, due to the crude prehistoric diagnostic procedures and criteria and definition of a prion disease.

I say again, what if, iatrogenic, what if, with all these neurological disorders, with a common denominator that is increasingly showing up in the picture, called the prion.

I urge all scientist to come together here, with this as the utmost of importance about all these neurological disease that are increasingly showing up as a prion mechanism, to put on the front burners, the IATROGENIC aspect and the potential of transmission there from, with diseases/disease??? in question.

by definition, could they be a Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE prion type disease, and if so, what are the iatrogenic chances of transmission?

this is very important, and should be at the forefront of research, and if proven, could be a monumental breakthrough in science and battle against the spreading of these disease/diseases.

the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health pub-med site, a quick search of the word SPORADIC will give you a hit of 40,747. of those, there are a plethora of disease listed under sporadic. sporadic simply means (UNKNOWN).

the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health pub-med site, a quick search of the word FAMILIAL will give you a hit of 921,815. of those, there are a plethora of disease listed under familial.

again, sporadic and familial is a red herring, in my opinion.

also, in my opinion, when you start have disease such as sporadic Fatal Familial Insomnia, (and or sporadic GSS, or the VPSPr type prion disease), and there is NO familial genetic linkage to the family of the diseased, I have serious questions there as to a familial type disease, and thus, being defined as such.

snip...see full text;

Friday, January 10, 2014

vpspr, sgss, sffi, TSE, an iatrogenic by-product of gss, ffi, familial type prion disease, what it ???

P132 Aged cattle brain displays Alzheimer’s-like pathology that can be propagated in a prionlike manner

Ines Moreno-Gonzalez (1), George Edwards III (1), Rodrigo Morales (1), Claudia Duran-Aniotz (1), Mercedes Marquez (2), Marti Pumarola (2), Claudio Soto (1) 


These results may contribute to uncover a previously unsuspected etiology surrounding some cases of sporadic AD. However, the early and controversial stage of the field of prion-like transmission in non-prion diseases added to the artificial nature of the animal models utilized for these studies, indicate that extrapolation of the results to humans should not be done without further experiments. 

P75 Determining transmissibility and proteome changes associated with abnormal bovine prionopathy 

Dudas S (1,2), Seuberlich T (3), Czub S (1,2) 

In prion diseases, it is believed that altered protein conformation encodes for different pathogenic strains. Currently 3 different strains of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are confirmed. Diagnostic tests for BSE are able to identify animals infected with all 3 strains, however, several diagnostic laboratories have reported samples with inconclusive results which are challenging to classify. It was suggested that these may be novel strains of BSE; to determine transmissibility, brain material from index cases were inoculated into cattle. 

In the first passage, cattle were intra-cranially challenged with brain homogenate from 2 Swiss animals with abnormal prionopathy. The challenged cattle incubated for 3 years and were euthanized with no clinical signs of neurologic disease. Animals were negative when tested on validated diagnostic tests but several research methods demonstrated changes in the prion conformation in these cattle, including density gradient centrifugation and immunohistochemistry. Currently, samples from the P1 animals are being tested for changes in protein levels using 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D DIGE) and mass spectrometry. It is anticipated that, if a prionopathy is present, this approach should identify pathways and targets to decipher the source of altered protein conformation. In addition, a second set of cattle have been challenged with brain material from the first passage. Ideally, these cattle will be given a sufficient incubation period to provide a definitive answer to the question of transmissibility. 

=====prion 2018===

***however in 1 C-type challenged animal, Prion 2015 Poster Abstracts 

S67 PrPsc was not detected using rapid tests for BSE.

***Subsequent testing resulted in the detection of pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc detection by PMCA only.

*** IBNC Tauopathy or TSE Prion disease, it appears, no one is sure ***

Posted by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. on 03 Jul 2015 at 16:53 GMT


Molecular characterization of BSE in Canada

Jianmin Yang 1 , Sandor Dudas 2 , Catherine Graham 2 , Markus Czub 3 , Tim McAllister 1 , Stefanie Czub 1 1 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Canada; 2 National and OIE BSE Reference Laboratory, Canada; 3 University of Calgary, Canada

Background: Three BSE types (classical and two atypical) have been identified on the basis of molecular characteristics of the misfolded protein associated with the disease. To date, each of these three types have been detected in Canadian cattle. Objectives: This study was conducted to further characterize the 16 Canadian BSE cases based on the biochemical properties of there associated PrPres.

Methods: Immuno-reactivity, molecular weight, glycoform profiles and relative proteinase K sensitivity of the PrPres from each of the 16 confirmed Canadian BSE cases was determined using modified Western blot analysis.

Results: Fourteen of the 16 Canadian BSE cases were C type, 1 was H type and 1 was L type. The Canadian H and L-type BSE cases exhibited size shifts and changes in glycosylation similar to other atypical BSE cases. PK digestion under mild and stringent conditions revealed a reduced protease resistance of the atypical cases compared to the C-type cases. N terminal-specific antibodies bound to PrPres from H type but not from C or L type. The C-terminal-specific antibodies resulted in a shift in the glycoform profile and detected a fourth band in the Canadian H-type BSE.

Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan. This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada. It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries.

Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan.

*** This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada.

*** It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries. ***

see page 176 of 201 pages...tss

*** Singeltary reply ; Molecular, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of BSE in Canada Singeltary reply;

On behalf of the Scientific Committee, I am pleased to inform you that your abstract

'Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009'

WAS accepted for inclusion in the INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGE (ISE) section of the 14th International Congress on Infectious Diseases. Accordingly, your abstract will be included in the "Intl. Scientific Exchange abstract CD-rom" of the Congress which will be distributed to all participants.

Abstracts accepted for INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGE are NOT PRESENTED in the oral OR poster sessions.

Your abstract below was accepted for: INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGE

#0670: Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009

Author: T. Singeltary; Bacliff, TX/US

Topic: Emerging Infectious Diseases Preferred type of presentation: International Scientific Exchange

This abstract has been ACCEPTED.

#0670: Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009

Authors: T. Singeltary; Bacliff, TX/US

Title: Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009

Body: Background

An update on atypical BSE and other TSE in North America. Please remember, the typical U.K. c-BSE, the atypical l-BSE (BASE), and h-BSE have all been documented in North America, along with the typical scrapie's, and atypical Nor-98 Scrapie, and to date, 2 different strains of CWD, and also TME. All these TSE in different species have been rendered and fed to food producing animals for humans and animals in North America (TSE in cats and dogs ?), and that the trading of these TSEs via animals and products via the USA and Canada has been immense over the years, decades.


12 years independent research of available data


I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2009. With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this old myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, medical i.e., surgical, blood, dental, endoscopy, optical, nutritional supplements, cosmetics etc.


I would like to submit a review of past CJD surveillance in the USA, and the urgent need to make all human TSE in the USA a reportable disease, in every state, of every age group, and to make this mandatory immediately without further delay. The ramifications of not doing so will only allow this agent to spread further in the medical, dental, surgical arena's. Restricting the reporting of CJD and or any human TSE is NOT scientific. Iatrogenic CJD knows NO age group, TSE knows no boundaries.

I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route.

Keywords: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Prion

page 114 ;






*** Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States revisited 2017

Singeltary et al


Tuesday, March 20, 2018 

Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr), sporadic creutzfeldt jakob disease sCJD, the same disease, what if?

UNDAY, MARCH 10, 2019 

National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined¹ Updated Feb 1, 2019 Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy VPSPr


USDA APHIS CDC Cervids: Chronic Wasting Disease Specifics Updated 2019


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion United States of America Update March 16, 2019

FRIDAY, MARCH 15, 2019

Saskatchewan Chronic Wasting Disease TSE Prion 349 Cases Positive for 2018


USDA ARS 2018 USAHA RESOLUTIONS Investigation of the Role of the Prion Protein Gene in CWD Resistance and Transmission of Disease

FRIDAY, MARCH 29, 2019

First Detection of Chronic Wasting Disease in a Wild Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) in Europe


Estimating the amount of Chronic Wasting Disease infectivity passing through abattoirs and field slaughter

FRIDAY, MARCH 15, 2019 

USDA APHIS SCRAPIE TSE PRION Sheep and Goat Health Update 2019


Cervid to human prion transmission 5R01NS088604-04 Update

MONDAY, APRIL 01, 2019 

PUBLIC HEALTH U of M launches Chronic Wasting Disease Program to address potential health crisis

TUESDAY, MARCH 26, 2019 






Scientific Advisors and Consultants Staff 2001 Advisory Committee TSE PRION Singeltary Submission Freas Monday, January 08,2001 3:03 PM 

FDA Singeltary submission 2001 

Greetings again Dr. Freas and Committee Members, 

I wish to submit the following information to the Scientific Advisors and Consultants Staff 2001 Advisory Committee (short version). I understand the reason of having to shorten my submission, but only hope that you add it to a copy of the long version, for members to take and read at their pleasure, (if cost is problem, bill me, address below). So when they realize some time in the near future of the 'real' risks i speak of from human/animal TSEs and blood/surgical products. I cannot explain the 'real' risk of this in 5 or 10 minutes at some meeting, or on 2 or 3 pages, but will attempt here: 

fda link is dead in the water; 

snip...see full text 

MONDAY, APRIL 8, 2019 

Studies Further Support Transmissibility of Alzheimer Disease–Associated Proteins

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.