Sunday, March 11, 2018

High Incidence of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Slovenia in 2015: A Case Series

Original Research Article

 Open Access Gateway

High Incidence of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Slovenia in 2015: A Case Series

Rus T.a · Lorber B.a · Trošt M.a,e · Dobrecovič S.b · Čakš Jager N.c · Popović M.d · Kramberger M.G.a,e 

 Author affiliations

 Corresponding Author

Keywords: Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseaseIncidenceCase series

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord Extra 2018;8:42–50 https://doi.org/10.1159/000486712

 Abstract

Background: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare fatal neurodegenerative disorder presenting with rapid cognitive decline and additional signs. The clinical characteristics of an increasing number of sporadic CJD (sCJD) patients admitted to the Ljubljana University Medical Centre are presented as well as the incidence of sCJD in Slovenia in 2015 compared to previous years. 

Methods: We investigated patients presenting with rapidly progressive dementia and at least one additional sign. The diagnosis was made based on clinical diagnostic criteria and an autopsy was performed in all cases. Data on definite sCJD cases in Slovenia since 1999 were obtained and its incidence was calculated. 

Results: Eight patients with definite sCJD died in 2015 in Slovenia (incidence: 3.89 cases per million). The long-term incidence 1999 was 1.67 per million. 

Conclusions: The incidence of sCJD was considerably higher in 2015. It reflects fluctuations in sporadic cases of this rare disease. The rising trend might indicate a previous underestimation and better recognition of the disease.

snip...

Discussion Eight cases overall or 3.89 cases per million represent an unusually high incidence of sCJD in Slovenia in 2015. The fluctuation in incidence in the studied period is not surprising, since it is a rare disease in a small population of approximately 2 million residents. Despite the fluctuation, which is reflected in a low coefficient of determination, a trend, although not significant, for an increasing incidence is indicated. One explanation for this trend could be a better recognition of the disease among physicians.

Our data show higher incidence rates than the published data by EuroCJD for the time period between 1993 and 2013 [17]. We only studied the time period since the mandatory reporting legislation of suspected sCJD cases came into force in 1999 [19].

The 5 cases from the UMC Ljubljana showed diverse clinical manifestations at the beginning of the disease: from rapid cognitive decline to balance problems (gait ataxia) and stroke-like syndrome that progressed to alien limb phenomena with pronounced rigidity (corticobasal syndrome [CBS]). In contrast to cognitive and cerebellar symptoms, which are common (13–46 and 14–65%, respectively), motor manifestations are rare as a first presenting symptom (6–8%) [5, 21]. There are occasional case reports of a stroke-like presentation of sCJD [8, 22-24]. To our knowledge, acute-onset stroke-like symptoms that progressed to CBS have been described only once before [22]. Approximately 40 cases of CBS presentations of sCJD have been published [25].

Some patients had MRI performed twice. Consecutive MRI revealed a progression of the radiological changes, consistent with previously published data [26]. In addition, the EEG changes intensified in time in all cases and in all but one progressed. Repeat EEG and MRI should be considered when results are negative in deteriorating patients.

The MRI and 18F-FDG-PET results were mostly concordant, as expected based on previously published data [27]. However, metabolic changes were more pronounced than structural changes, and also in comparison to other neurodegenerative diseases. Consistent with previously published data [27], the 18F-FDG-PET changes were mostly asymmetrical. In case 2, the 18F-FDG-PET result was typical for CBS and hypometabolism was prominent, in contrast to the mild changes on MRI.

In case 1, the cause of basal ganglia hypermetabolism was discovered post mortem on histopathological examination, which revealed a somewhat paler substantia nigra and Lewy bodies in pigmented neurons of the substantia nigra, locus caeruleus, and dorsal nucleus of the vagal nerve, consistent with Parkinson disease (PD) [28]. Besides PD pathology there was also evidence of early tauopathy and TDP-43 proteinopathy. Coexistence of sCJD with different neurodegenerative pathologies including PD has been described before in a few case reports [29, 30].

Case 3 was unusual, since balance problems started immediately after radioactive iodine application. We could not find any causative connection and it was probably a coincidence. However, there is a published case of deterioration immediately after surgery; in that case report, a detailed history revealed that discrete symptoms had been present before the procedure [23].

All 5 patients presenting to our clinic had positive CSF 14-3-3 and CSF tau values clearly above the cut-off value for CJD [31], which was expected, since both are biomarkers of neuronal damage and the patients were already evidently disabled when CSF was obtained.

Recently, another highly specific test for CJD, the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay for detection of PrPSc in CSF or in olfactory mucosal brushing, was invented [32]. Using appropriate samples and procedures, this method is reported to achieve a high specificity and sensitivity approaching 100% [33]. It is a very promising test, but currently available only at certain centres.

One limitation of this study is that we calculated the incidence based on pathologically proven cases of sCJD. There were some patients reported as possible or probable CJD cases to the NIPH that did not have an autopsy performed. Therefore, the incidence reported might be underestimated. Another limitation of studying rare diseases like sCJD might be insufficient recognition among physicians.

This study confirms the broad variety of possible early presentations of a rare disease – that is, sCJD – and emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive diagnostics of patients with rapidly progressive dementia. Early identification and regular reporting of new cases of clinically suspected CJD with subsequent autopsies are important for epidemiological as well as research purposes.

Statement of Ethics According to national legislation, the NIPH has an obligation to collect, analyse, and publish data on infectious diseases [19].

Disclosure Statement The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

© 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel


-------- Original Message -------- 

Subject: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Slovenia from 1985 to 2003 with pronounced increase between January 2001 and December 2003 

Date: Mon, 11 Oct 2004 15:36:16 -0500 

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." 

Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy 

To: BSE-L@UNI-KARLSRUHE.DE 

##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

1: Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2004 Aug 31;116(15-16):524-9. 

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Slovenia from 1985 to 2003.

Popovic M, Glavac D, Smerkolj S, Svigelj V, Kalan G, Galvani V, Cernilec M, Bresjanac M.

Institute of Pathology, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. mara.popovic@mf.uni-lj.si

AIM: The epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and subsequent emergence of a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have raised great public concern, initiating improved and prospective surveillance of human prion diseases in Europe and all over the world. This report briefly presents the epidemiology, clinical data, neuropathology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry, and prion-protein gene analysis of Slovenian cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from January 1985 to the end of 2003. 

MATERIALS, METHODS AND RESULTS: During the 19-year period, 39 suspected cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease were referred and 22 were confirmed. The prion-protein gene was analyzed in 12 of the confirmed cases and the protein glycosylation pattern in 11. There was a low average incidence of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (0.5/million) throughout the surveillance period, but a pronounced increase between January 2001 and December 2003 (to 1.9/million/year). A high female to male ratio (2.5/1) was noted. All of the confirmed cases were defined as sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease based on the clinical data, neuropathological findings, glycosylation pattern, and gene analysis. All tested cases had a type-2 glycosylation pattern; eleven of the twelve tested patients were homozygous at codon 129 of the prion-protein gene (1 VV and 10 MM) and one was heterozygous. 

CONCLUSION: The small number of Slovenian cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease during the last 19 years has shown a pronounced increase in incidence, reflecting improved surveillance, and a high female to male ratio, where female cases are more than twice as numerous as male cases.




################# BSE-L-subscribe-request@uni-karlsruhe.de #################


WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 16, 2015

Ljubljana Slovenia First Mad Cow Disease Case in Eight Years Confirmed

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy ,Slovenia


Terry S. Singeltary Sr. 6/23/09 

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Inspection 2009 Slovenia and Bulgaria


Scientific Steering Committee – Opinion on the GBR of SLOVENIA September 2002 

CONCLUSION ON THE CURRENT GBR 

The BSE-agent was potentially imported into the country via infected MBM in the mid 90s when MBM imports peaked. This MBM reached cattle via feed. It can be expected that the 1997 birth cohort had a much lower chance to be infected because MBM imports decreased dramatically and the first feed ban was introduced. Although the rendering system was able to reduce BSE infectivity since 1992, some recycling and propagation may have occurred because SRM were not removed and therefore rendered. 

The first domestic BSE-case in Slovenia was identified in November 2001 and a second case was confirmed in January 2002. It is therefore confirmed (GBR III) that domestic cattle in Slovenia are (clinically or pre-clinically) infected with the BSE-agent at a low incidence. 


see more here ; 


Subject: Docket No: 02-088-1 RE-Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; 

Date: Mon, 27 Jan 2003 15:54:57 -0600 

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." 

To: mhtml:%7B33B38F65-8D2E-434D-8F9B-8BDCD77D3066%7Dmid://00000328/!x-usc:mailto:reg ).

Greetings list members,

i just cannot accept this; 

23 kg of meat in a suitcase (suitcase bomb...TSS) 

The data do not provide a species of origin code for these 

products, therefore they may not contain any ruminant product. 

what kind of statement is this? how stupid do they think we are? it could also very well mean that _all_ of it was ruminant based products ! 

Terry S. Singeltary Sr., Bacliff, Texas USA 

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from Slovenia? 

There were no direct flights from Slovenia to the US in fiscal year 2000.

 APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring sampled 27 air passengers from Slovenia for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year 2000. 

One of these 27 passengers was carrying two kilograms of a meat item that could potentially harbor pathogens that cause BSE. This passenger arrived to Elizabeth, New York, in June 2000 and declared no intention to visit a farm or ranch in the US. 

Source: US Department of Transportation, and APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection data base 


Greetings FDA and public,

if you go to the below site, and search all BSE known countries and check out their air traffic illegal meat they have confiscated, and check out the low number checked, compared to actual passenger traffic, would not take too much for some nut to bring in FMD/TSEs into the USA as a 'suitcase bomb'. 

[[Under APHIS-PPQ's agricultural quarantine inspection monitoring, 284 air passengers from Israel were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year 2001. Seven of these passengers, or 2 percent, carried a total of 11 kg of meat items that could potentially harbor the pathogen that causes BSE. None of these passengers from whom meat items were confiscated reported plans to visit or work on a ranch or farm during their visit to the U.S.]] 

if they were to have questioned the terrorist that bombed the Twin Towers with jets, if they were to have questioned them at flight school in the USA, i am sure that they would have said they did not intend to visit the Twin Towers as a flying bomb either. what am i thinking, they probably did ask this? stupid me. 

Docket Management Docket: 02N-0276 - Bioterrorism Preparedness; Registration of Food Facilities, Section 305 Comment Number: EC -254 Accepted - Volume 11










bse_ Slovenia 11_23_01

CEI LogoBovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Slovenia
Impact Worksheet, November 23, 2001

Summary: In Slovenia, BSE was confirmed in a five-year old domestically bred cow; this is the first case of BSE in that country. Slovenia identified the cow as a suspected BSE case during mandatory prionic testing in slaughter cattle. The Ljubljana, Slovenia National Veterinary Institute confirmed the BSE test through histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations on 16 November. Positive results were corroborated by the Institute of Animal Neurology at the University of Bern in Switzerland on 20 November.
In December 1997, APHIS prohibited the importation of live ruminants and most ruminant products from all of Europe including Slovenia. In December 2000, import restrictions regarding BSE were expanded by prohibiting all imports of rendered animal protein products, regardless of species, from Europe. Slovenia had less than 0.1 percent of the world’s stocks in cattle, goats, and sheep in 2000 . Slovenia’s meat exports were minimal, and destination countries for the live animal exports were not specified. Slovenia exported meat and bone meal to Austria, Bosnia-Hercegovina and Croatia in 1999. The US imported no products from Slovenia during 2000 or 2001 that would be of risk for BSE transmission. In 1998, the US imported small quantities of animal feeds from Slovenia, however, it is not known if these feeds contained ruminant materials. The infected cow came from a farm in northeast Slovenia.
BSE Slovenia
How extensive is the outbreak of BSE in Slovenia?
BSE has been confirmed in a five-year old cow in Slovenia on 16 November. This is the first case of BSE in Slovenia, and the cow was domestically bred. Slovenia first identified the cow as a suspected BSE case during routine and mandatory Western blot prionic testing for BSE in slaughter cattle. The Ljubljana, Slovenia National Veterinary Institute and the Institute of Animal Neurology Laboratory in Switzerland confirmed the BSE test. The infected cow came from a small, extensive farm with nine animals in the Zgornja Savinsjka valley in northeast Slovenia. Veterinary authorities immediately isolated the farm and banned all movement of animals to and from the farm.
Source: Reuters; AgWorldwide Internet news; OIE Weekly Disease Information Reports, 16 and 23 November 2001
What actions has Slovenia taken to protect its livestock from BSE?
Slovenia has a national BSE testing program in place, feeding of meat and bone meal is banned,, and bovine product imports have been restricted. Use of meat and bone meal has been banned since 1996 as a feed for ruminants, and for non-ruminants since late 2000.
Beginning February 2001, quick post mortem prionic testing for all slaughtered animals has been mandatory in Slovenia for all slaughtered animals older than 30 months. In January 2000, Slovenian authorities had conducted 700 histological tests after reports of BSE in Germany and Italy. In February 2000, the government was reportedly performing 250 prionic tests daily. In 1996 a policy of random testing for animals older than 36 months was introduced. Since 1992, Slovenia has routinely performed pathohistologic analysis of bovine brains for cattle exhibiting clinical signs of a central nervous system malady.
Since 1991, Slovenia has incrementally added to the list of European countries from which it bans imports of live bovine animals, semen and embryos, meat products, gelatin, collagen, raw materials for pharmaceutical use, and other bovine products:
Imports banned from
Beginning in year
United Kingdom
1991
Ireland, Switzerland, France, Portugal
1996
Belgium, Netherlands
1998
Germany
2000
Italy
2001
Source: USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service GAIN Report #SI1001, March 27, 2001
What is Slovenia’s production and trade in affected animals and animal products?
Slovenia's stocks of cattle, goats and sheep were less than 0.1 percent of world stocks in 2000 (Table 1). Imports of cattle were 0.35 percent of the world export trade in 1999, but goat and sheep imports were both less than 0.1 percent. Cattle imports were exclusively from Central and Eastern Europe and Hungarian imports dominated the Slovenian market. Slovenia exported only 19 metric tons of cattle in 1999; the number of live animals in this figure was not available. Goat export values were not available, and sheep exports were less than 0.1 percent of world sheep exports.
Table 1. Slovenia’s live animal stocks and exports and imports of live animals.
Live Animal
2000 Stocks
Trade
1999 Exports
1999 Imports
Head
% World
Head
% World
Head
% World
Cattle
Goats
Sheep
Slovenian production was less than 0.1 percent of the world's production of beef and veal and mutton and lamb in 2000 (Table 2). Slovenia imported less than 0.1 percent of the world's beef and veal and mutton and lamb in 1999. Slovenia also imported 121 metric tons of meat and bone meal from Austria in 1999. Slovenia exported beef and veal in 2000, accounting for 0.2 percent of world exports; destinations of the beef and veal exports were not specified. Slovenian exports of meat and bone meal in 1999 totaled 1,527 metric tons to Austria, Bosnia-Hercegovina and Croatia. Information on goat imports and exports was not available.
Table 2. Production and trade in relevant products by Slovenia.
Products
2000 Production
Trade
1999 Exports
1999 Imports
Metric ton
% World
Metric ton
% World
Metric ton
% World
Beef and Veal
Mutton and Lamb1
Source: United Nations FAO ; USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service GAIN Report #SI1001, March 27, 2001
1 Sheep were included in Table 1 and Table 2 as ‘affected’ because USDA/APHIS includes all ruminants and ruminant products in its restrictions pertaining to BSE. Goat production and trade information was unavailable.
What are the U.S. imports of affected animals or animal products from Slovenia?
In 2001, 2000 and 1999, no affected animals or animal products were imported from Slovenia. In 1998, the only affected product imported into the US from Slovenia was 260,000 kg of "Preparations Used in Animal Feedings, Not Otherwise Specified." It is not known whether this feed contained ruminant materials.
Source: World Trade Atlas
Did the US have restrictions on ruminant imports from Slovenia prior to this case?
In December 1997, APHIS prohibited the importation of live ruminants and most ruminant products from all of Europe including Slovenia until a thorough assessment of the risks of introduction of BSE into the US could be made. Prior to December 1997, import restrictions were applied only to those countries which had reported cases of BSE in native animals. Also, importation of ruminant meat from BSE-affected countries was permitted if the meat was deboned and free of visually identifiable lymphatic and nervous tissue and if it met other restrictions. Import regulations enacted December 1997 extended the import restrictions to countries which had not had a declared BSE case, yet had risk factors for BSE occurrence.
These regulatory changes also removed provisions that allowed importation of ruminant meat from the restricted countries, and thereby prohibited importation of ruminant meat from all Europe. These import restrictions also applied to bone meal, blood meal, meat meal, offal, fat, glands, and serum from ruminants . In December 2000, APHIS expanded its import restrictions regarding BSE by prohibiting all imports from Europe of rendered animal protein products, regardless of species.
Source: USDA, APHIS, VS
What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from Slovenia?
There were no direct flights from Slovenia to the US in fiscal year 2000.
APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring sampled 27 air passengers from Slovenia for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year 2000. One of these 27 passengers was carrying two kilograms of a meat item that could potentially harbor pathogens that cause BSE . This passenger arrived to Elizabeth, New York, in June 2000 and declared no intention to visit a farm or ranch in the US.
Source: US Department of Transportation, and APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection data base
CEI’s plans for follow up:
Prior to CEI’s January 2002 quarterly summary of disease events October-December 2001, CEI will review any further developments in this Slovenian outbreak.
If you need more information or wish to comment, you may reply to this message or contact Jennifer Grannis at (970) 490-7844 or David Cummings at (970) 490-7895 .

2018 ZOONOSIS OF ATYPICAL AND TYPICAL BSE, SCRAPIE, AND CWD TSE PRION


O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods. 

*** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period, 

***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold long incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014), 

***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE), 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. 

We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health. 

=============== 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases*** 

=============== 

***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals. 

============== 


***Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. 

***Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. 

***These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions. 


PRION 2016 TOKYO

Saturday, April 23, 2016

SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online

Taylor & Francis

Prion 2016 Animal Prion Disease Workshop Abstracts

WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential

Juan Maria Torres a, Olivier Andreoletti b, J uan-Carlos Espinosa a. Vincent Beringue c. Patricia Aguilar a,

Natalia Fernandez-Borges a. and Alba Marin-Moreno a

"Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal ( CISA-INIA ). Valdeolmos, Madrid. Spain; b UMR INRA -ENVT 1225 Interactions Holes Agents Pathogenes. ENVT. Toulouse. France: "UR892. Virologie lmmunologie MolécuIaires, Jouy-en-Josas. France

Dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated bovine tissues is considered as the origin of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) disease in human. To date, BSE agent is the only recognized zoonotic prion. Despite the variety of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) agents that have been circulating for centuries in farmed ruminants there is no apparent epidemiological link between exposure to ruminant products and the occurrence of other form of TSE in human like sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD). However, the zoonotic potential of the diversity of circulating TSE agents has never been systematically assessed. The major issue in experimental assessment of TSEs zoonotic potential lies in the modeling of the ‘species barrier‘, the biological phenomenon that limits TSE agents’ propagation from a species to another. In the last decade, mice genetically engineered to express normal forms of the human prion protein has proved essential in studying human prions pathogenesis and modeling the capacity of TSEs to cross the human species barrier.

To assess the zoonotic potential of prions circulating in farmed ruminants, we study their transmission ability in transgenic mice expressing human PrPC (HuPrP-Tg). Two lines of mice expressing different forms of the human PrPC (129Met or 129Val) are used to determine the role of the Met129Val dimorphism in susceptibility/resistance to the different agents.

These transmission experiments confirm the ability of BSE prions to propagate in 129M- HuPrP-Tg mice and demonstrate that Met129 homozygotes may be susceptible to BSE in sheep or goat to a greater degree than the BSE agent in cattle and that these agents can convey molecular properties and neuropathological indistinguishable from vCJD. However homozygous 129V mice are resistant to all tested BSE derived prions independently of the originating species suggesting a higher transmission barrier for 129V-PrP variant.

Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. 

Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. 

These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions. 


why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.

snip...

R. BRADLEY


Title: Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period) 

*** In complement to the recent demonstration that humanized mice are susceptible to scrapie, we report here the first observation of direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to a macaque after a 10-year incubation period. Neuropathologic examination revealed all of the features of a prion disease: spongiform change, neuronal loss, and accumulation of PrPres throughout the CNS. 

*** This observation strengthens the questioning of the harmlessness of scrapie to humans, at a time when protective measures for human and animal health are being dismantled and reduced as c-BSE is considered controlled and being eradicated. 

*** Our results underscore the importance of precautionary and protective measures and the necessity for long-term experimental transmission studies to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains. 


SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 2018 

Experimental sheep BSE prions generate the vCJD phenotype when serially passaged in transgenic mice expressing human prion protein



FRIDAY, DECEMBER 22, 2017 

Detection of PrPBSE and prion infectivity in the ileal Peyer’s patch of young calves as early as 2 months after oral challenge with classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy



Friday, December 14, 2012

DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012

snip...

In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration's BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.

Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:

1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and

2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.

Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.

The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.

Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.

There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.

snip...

36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011).

The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.

snip...

The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).

snip...

In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.

snip...

In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.

snip...

Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.

snip...




WILD HOGS AND CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION


i have been worried about this for some time, but i don't see why others are not worried as well. these feral hogs that run rampant across states, can dig up a great deal of territory. what else can they dig up? i.e. CWD TSE PRION, and can they spread cwd tse prion to hell and back? 


CWD TO PIGS


Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES

Location: Virus and Prion Research

Title: Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease

Author item Moore, Sarah item Kunkle, Robert item Kondru, Naveen item Manne, Sireesha item Smith, Jodi item Kanthasamy, Anumantha item West Greenlee, M item Greenlee, Justin

Submitted to: Prion Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2017 Publication Date: N/A Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Aims: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a naturally-occurring, fatal neurodegenerative disease of cervids. We previously demonstrated that disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) can be detected in the brain and retina from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent. In that study, neurological signs consistent with prion disease were observed only in one pig: an intracranially challenged pig that was euthanized at 64 months post-challenge. The purpose of this study was to use an antigen-capture immunoassay (EIA) and real-time quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) to determine whether PrPSc is present in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the CWD agent.

Methods: At two months of age, crossbred pigs were challenged by the intracranial route (n=20), oral route (n=19), or were left unchallenged (n=9). At approximately 6 months of age, the time at which commercial pigs reach market weight, half of the pigs in each group were culled (<6 challenge="" groups="" month="" pigs="" remaining="" the="">6 month challenge groups) were allowed to incubate for up to 73 months post challenge (mpc). The retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) was screened for the presence of PrPSc by EIA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The RPLN, palatine tonsil, and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) from 6-7 pigs per challenge group were also tested using EIA and QuIC.

Results: PrPSc was not detected by EIA and IHC in any RPLNs. All tonsils and MLNs were negative by IHC, though the MLN from one pig in the oral <6 5="" 6="" at="" by="" detected="" eia.="" examined="" group="" in="" intracranial="" least="" lymphoid="" month="" months="" of="" one="" pigs="" positive="" prpsc="" quic="" the="" tissues="" was="">6 months group, 5/6 pigs in the oral <6 4="" and="" group="" months="" oral="">6 months group. Overall, the MLN was positive in 14/19 (74%) of samples examined, the RPLN in 8/18 (44%), and the tonsil in 10/25 (40%). Conclusions:

This study demonstrates that PrPSc accumulates in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent, and can be detected as early as 4 months after challenge.

CWD-infected pigs rarely develop clinical disease and if they do, they do so after a long incubation period. This raises the possibility that CWD-infected pigs could shed prions into their environment long before they develop clinical disease.

Furthermore, lymphoid tissues from CWD-infected pigs could present a potential source of CWD infectivity in the animal and human food chains.



CONFIDENTIAL


EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

While this clearly is a cause for concern we should not jump to the conclusion that this means that pigs will necessarily be infected by bone and meat meal fed by the oral route as is the case with cattle. ...



we cannot rule out the possibility that unrecognised subclinical spongiform encephalopathy could be present in British pigs though there is no evidence for this: only with parenteral/implantable pharmaceuticals/devices is the theoretical risk to humans of sufficient concern to consider any action.


 
Our records show that while some use is made of porcine materials in medicinal products, the only products which would appear to be in a hypothetically ''higher risk'' area are the adrenocorticotrophic hormone for which the source material comes from outside the United Kingdom, namely America China Sweden France and Germany. The products are manufactured by Ferring and Armour. A further product, ''Zenoderm Corium implant'' manufactured by Ethicon, makes use of porcine skin - which is not considered to be a ''high risk'' tissue, but one of its uses is described in the data sheet as ''in dural replacement''. This product is sourced from the United Kingdom.....



snip...see much more here ;


WEDNESDAY, APRIL 05, 2017

Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease



WEDNESDAY, APRIL 05, 2017

*** Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease ***



cattle are highly susceptible to white-tailed deer CWD and mule deer CWD

***In contrast, cattle are highly susceptible to white-tailed deer CWD and mule deer CWD in experimental conditions but no natural CWD infections in cattle have been reported (Sigurdson, 2008; Hamir et al., 2006). It is not known how susceptible humans are to CWD but given that the prion can be present in muscle, it is likely that humans have been exposed to the agent via consumption of venison (Sigurdson, 2008). Initial experimental research, however, suggests that human susceptibility to CWD is low and there may be a robust species barrier for CWD transmission to humans (Sigurdson, 2008). It is apparent, though, that CWD is affecting wild and farmed cervid populations in endemic areas with some deer populations decreasing as a result.

SNIP...



price of prion poker goes up for cwd to cattle;

Monday, April 04, 2016

*** Limited amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in the peripheral tissues of intracerebrally inoculated cattle ***



MONDAY, JUNE 12, 2017

Rethinking Major grain organizations opposition to CFIA's control zone approach to Chronic Wasting CWD TSE Prion Mad Deer Type Disease 2017?



THURSDAY, MARCH 08, 2018 

Cervid, Wild Hogs, Coyotes, Wolves, Cats, Rodents, Gut Piles and Scavengers, A Potential Risk as Regards Disease Transmission CWD TSE Prion


ONE DECADE POST MAD COW FEED BAN OF AUGUST 1997...2007
 
10,000,000 POUNDS REASON Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.
 
2007
 
Date: March 21, 2007 at 2:27 pm PST
 
RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINES -- CLASS II PRODUCT
 
Bulk cattle feed made with recalled Darling's 85% Blood Meal, Flash Dried, Recall # V-024-2007 CODE Cattle feed delivered between 01/12/2007 and 01/26/2007 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Pfeiffer, Arno, Inc, Greenbush,
WI. by conversation on February 5, 2007.
 
Firm initiated recall is ongoing.
 
REASON Blood meal used to make cattle feed was recalled because it was cross- contaminated with prohibited bovine meat and bone meal that had been manufactured on common equipment and labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.
 
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 42,090 lbs. DISTRIBUTION WI
 
___________________________________
 
PRODUCT Custom dairy premix products: MNM ALL PURPOSE Pellet, HILLSIDE/CDL Prot- Buffer Meal, LEE, M.-CLOSE UP PX Pellet, HIGH DESERT/ GHC LACT Meal, TATARKA, M CUST PROT Meal, SUNRIDGE/CDL PROTEIN Blend, LOURENZO, K PVM DAIRY Meal, DOUBLE B DAIRY/GHC LAC Mineral, WEST PIONT/GHC CLOSEUP Mineral, WEST POINT/GHC LACT Meal, JENKS, J/COMPASS PROTEIN Meal, COPPINI - 8# SPECIAL DAIRY Mix, GULICK, L-LACT Meal (Bulk), TRIPLE J - PROTEIN/LACTATION, ROCK CREEK/GHC MILK Mineral, BETTENCOURT/GHC S.SIDE MK-MN, BETTENCOURT #1/GHC MILK MINR, V&C DAIRY/GHC LACT Meal, VEENSTRA, F/GHC LACT Meal, SMUTNY, A- BYPASS ML W/SMARTA, Recall # V-025-2007
 
CODE The firm does not utilize a code - only shipping documentation with commodity and weights identified.
 
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Rangen, Inc, Buhl, ID, by letters on February 13 and 14, 2007.
 
Firm initiated recall is complete.
 
REASON Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement.
 
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 9,997,976 lbs. DISTRIBUTION ID and NV
 
END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR MARCH 21, 2007

PAGE NOT FOUND
 

PAGE NOT FOUND

IF you will notice, archived information has now been deleted before 2008. please be aware, 2006 was a banner year for tons and tons of banned mad cow protein fed out into commerce. i have some archived, but not all. the mad cow feed ban by the FDA et al was and is nothing but ink on paper...terry

 
TUESDAY, JANUARY 17, 2017 

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEEDVIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE 2016 to 2017 BSE TSE PRION 



Tuesday, September 06, 2016
 
A comparison of classical and H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism in wild type and EK211 cattle following intracranial inoculation
 
 
Saturday, July 23, 2016
 
BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION SURVEILLANCE, TESTING, AND SRM REMOVAL UNITED STATE OF AMERICA UPDATE JULY 2016
 
 
Tuesday, July 26, 2016
 
Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE TSE Prion UPDATE JULY 2016
 
 
Monday, June 20, 2016
 
Specified Risk Materials SRMs BSE TSE Prion Program
 

Thursday, December 08, 2016

USDA APHIS National Scrapie Eradication Program October 2016 Monthly Report Fiscal Year 2017 atypical NOR-98 Scrapie


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 2017 

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE TSE Prion (aka mad cow disease) Report December 14, 2017 2017


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 2017 

SCRAPIE TSE PRION UPDATE USA DECEMBER 14, 2017


MONDAY, DECEMBER 25, 2017 

APHIS USDA Food Safety Research Priorities and the one you missed, the coming storm BSE CWD Scrapie TSE Prion


TUESDAY, JANUARY 17, 2017 

FDA PART 589 -- SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEEDVIOLATIONS OFFICIAL ACTION INDICATED OAI UPDATE 2016 to 2017 BSE TSE PRION


Thursday, November 16, 2017 

Texas Natural Meats Recalls Beef Products Due To Possible Specified Risk Materials Contamination


MONDAY, JANUARY 1, 2018 

PRESIDENT TRUMP KILLS PROPOSED RULE THAT WOULD HAVE PROHIBITED THE USE OF COW BYPRODUCTS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF DRUGS WARNING TO ALL COUNTRIES


SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 4, 2017 

FDA 589.2000, Section 21 C.F.R. Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed WARNING Letters and FEED MILL VIOLATIONS OBSERVATIONS 2017 to 2006


FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 3, 2017

BSE MAD COW TSE PRION DISEASE PET FOOD FEED IN COMMERCE INDUSTRY VS TERRY S. SINGELTARY Sr. A REVIEW

''I have a neighbor who is a dairy farmer. He tells me that he knows of several farmers who feed their cattle expired dog food. These farmers are unaware of any dangers posed to their cattle from the pet food contents. For these farmers, the pet food is just another source of protein.''

IN CONFIDENCE


TUESDAY, JULY 18, 2017 

USDA announces Alabama case of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Alabama


THURSDAY, JULY 20, 2017 

USDA OIE Alabama Atypical L-type BASE Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE animal feeds for ruminants rule, 21 CFR 589.200


SUNDAY, JULY 30, 2017 

Do we need to explain the occurrence of atypical scrapie?


TUESDAY, JULY 18, 2017 

MINK FARMING USA TRANSMISSIBLE MINK ENCEPHALOPATHY TSE PRION DISEASE SURVEILLANCE AND TESTING



SUNDAY, JANUARY 11, 2015 

Docket No. APHIS-2014-0107 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Animals and Animal Products Singeltary Submission



[Docket No. FSIS-2006-0011] FSIS Harvard Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)


*USA USDA CWD BSE SCRAPIE TSE PRION?
3. Prof. A. Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach was to accord it a very low profile indeed. Dr. A Thiermann showed the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and thought this was a fanatical incident to be avoided in the US at all costs. ...


Evidence That Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Results from Feeding Infected Cattle Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME. snip... The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle... 

In Confidence - Perceptions of unconventional slow virus diseases of animals in the USA - APRIL-MAY 1989 - G A H Wells 3. Prof. A. Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach was to accord it a very low profile indeed. Dr. A Thiermann showed the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and thought this was a fanatical incident to be avoided in the US at all costs. ... 


The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite its subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming.. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province! ...page 26.


Saturday, April 23, 2016
 
Scrapie ZOONOSIS PRION CONFERENCE TOKYO 2016
 
*** SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016 ***
 
Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X
 
 
 Monday, June 20, 2016
 
Specified Risk Materials SRMs BSE TSE Prion Program
 
 
Thursday, June 9, 2016
 
Advisory Committee; Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee; Termination
 
 
Saturday, April 16, 2016
 
APHIS [Docket No. APHIS-2016-0029] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting May 2, 2016, and June 16, 2016 Singeltary Submission
 
 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 8, 2017 

Concurrence With OIE Risk Designations for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy [Docket No. APHIS-2016-0092]

http://animalhealthreportpriontse.blogspot.com/2017/08/concurrence-with-oie-risk-designations.html

WEDNESDAY, JULY 26, 2017 

APHIS USDA Emerging Animal Disease Preparedness and Response Plan July 2017


THURSDAY, JUNE 22, 2017 

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to establish liaison office in College Station, Texas


10,000,000+ LBS. of PROHIBITED BANNED MAD COW FEED I.E. BLOOD LACED MBM IN COMMERCE USA 2007 

Date: March 21, 2007 at 2:27 pm PST 

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINES -- CLASS II PRODUCT 

Bulk cattle feed made with recalled Darling's 85% Blood Meal, Flash Dried, Recall # V-024-2007 CODE Cattle feed delivered between 01/12/2007 and 01/26/2007 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Pfeiffer, Arno, Inc, Greenbush, WI. by conversation on February 5, 2007. 

Firm initiated recall is ongoing. 

REASON Blood meal used to make cattle feed was recalled because it was cross- contaminated with prohibited bovine meat and bone meal that had been manufactured on common equipment and labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement. 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 42,090 lbs. DISTRIBUTION WI 

___________________________________ 

PRODUCT 

Custom dairy premix products: 

MNM ALL PURPOSE Pellet, 

HILLSIDE/CDL Prot- Buffer Meal, 

LEE, M.-CLOSE UP PX Pellet, 

HIGH DESERT/ GHC LACT Meal, 

TATARKA, 

M CUST PROT Meal, 

SUNRIDGE/CDL PROTEIN Blend, 

LOURENZO, K PVM DAIRY Meal, 

DOUBLE B DAIRY/GHC LAC Mineral, 

WEST PIONT/GHC CLOSEUP Mineral, 

WEST POINT/GHC LACT Meal, 

JENKS, 

J/COMPASS PROTEIN Meal, 

COPPINI - 8# SPECIAL DAIRY Mix, 

GULICK, L-LACT Meal (Bulk), 

TRIPLE J - PROTEIN/LACTATION, 

ROCK CREEK/GHC MILK Mineral, 

BETTENCOURT/GHC S..SIDE MK-MN, 

BETTENCOURT #1/GHC MILK MINR, 

V&C DAIRY/GHC LACT Meal, 

VEENSTRA, F/GHC LACT Meal, 

SMUTNY, A- BYPASS ML W/SMARTA, 

Recall # V-025-2007 

CODE The firm does not utilize a code - only shipping documentation with commodity and weights identified. 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Rangen, Inc, Buhl, ID, by letters on February 13 and 14, 2007. 

Firm initiated recall is complete. 

REASON Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement. 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 9,997,976 lbs. 

DISTRIBUTION ID and NV 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR MARCH 21, 2007 



ALABAMA MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE 2006


RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINE -- CLASS II

______________________________ 

PRODUCT

a) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish, Recall # V-100-6;

b) Performance Sheep Pell W/Decox/A/N, medicated, net wt. 50 lbs, Recall # V-101-6;

c) Pro 40% Swine Conc Meal -- 50 lb, Recall # V-102-6;

d) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish Food Medicated, Recall # V-103-6;

e) "Big Jim’s" BBB Deer Ration, Big Buck Blend, Recall # V-104-6;

f) CO-OP 40% Hog Supplement Medicated Pelleted, Tylosin 100 grams/ton, 50 lb. bag, Recall # V-105-6;

g) Pig Starter Pell II, 18% W/MCDX Medicated 282020, Carbadox -- 0.0055%, Recall # V-106-6;

h) CO-OP STARTER-GROWER CRUMBLES, Complete Feed for Chickens from Hatch to 20 Weeks, Medicated, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, 25 and 50 Lbs, Recall # V-107-6;

i) CO-OP LAYING PELLETS, Complete Feed for Laying Chickens, Recall # 108-6;

j) CO-OP LAYING CRUMBLES, Recall # V-109-6;

k) CO-OP QUAIL FLIGHT CONDITIONER MEDICATED, net wt 50 Lbs, Recall # V-110-6;

l) CO-OP QUAIL STARTER MEDICATED, Net Wt. 50 Lbs, Recall # V-111-6;

m) CO-OP QUAIL GROWER MEDICATED, 50 Lbs, Recall # V-112-6

CODE

Product manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

Alabama Farmers Cooperative, Inc., Decatur, AL, by telephone, fax, email and visit on June 9, 2006. FDA initiated recall is complete.

REASON

Animal and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

125 tons

DISTRIBUTION

AL and FL 

______________________________

PRODUCT

Bulk custom dairy feds manufactured from concentrates, Recall # V-113-6

CODE

All dairy feeds produced between 2/1/05 and 6/16/06 and containing H. J. Baker recalled feed products.

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

Vita Plus Corp., Gagetown, MI, by visit beginning on June 21, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete.

REASON

The feed was manufactured from materials that may have been contaminated with mammalian protein.

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

27,694,240 lbs

DISTRIBUTION

MI 

______________________________

PRODUCT

Bulk custom made dairy feed, Recall # V-114-6

CODE

None

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

Burkmann Feeds LLC, Glasgow, KY, by letter on July 14, 2006. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

REASON

Custom made feeds contain ingredient called Pro-Lak, which may contain ruminant derived meat and bone meal.

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

?????

DISTRIBUTION

KY

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 2, 2006

###


=====

PRODUCT 

Bulk Whole Barley, Recall # V-256-2009

CODE

No code or lot number.

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER

Mars Petcare US, Clinton, OK, by telephone on May 21, 2009. Firm initiated recall is complete.

REASON

Product may have contained prohibited materials without cautionary statement on the label.

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE

208,820 pounds

DISTRIBUTION

TX

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 26, 2009

###


Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALL KY VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE ????? 

Date: August 6, 2006 at 6:19 pm PST 

PRODUCT Bulk custom made dairy feed, Recall # V-114-6 

CODE None 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Burkmann Feeds LLC, Glasgow, KY, by letter on July 14, 2006. 

Firm initiated recall is ongoing. REASON Custom made feeds contain ingredient called Pro-Lak, which may contain ruminant derived meat and bone meal. 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE ????? 

DISTRIBUTION KY 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 2, 2006

### 


MAD COW FEED RECALL USA EQUALS 10,878.06 TONS NATIONWIDE Sun Jul 16, 2006 09:22 71.248.128.67 

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINE -- CLASS II 

______________________________ 


PRODUCT a) PRO-LAK, bulk weight, Protein Concentrate for Lactating Dairy Animals, Recall # V-079-6; 

b) ProAmino II, FOR PREFRESH AND LACTATING COWS, net weight 50lb (22.6 kg), Recall # V-080-6; 

c) PRO-PAK, MARINE & ANIMAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATE FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEED, Recall # V-081-6; 

d) Feather Meal, Recall # V-082-6 

CODE a) Bulk b) None c) Bulk d) Bulk 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER H. J. Baker & Bro., Inc., Albertville, AL, by telephone on June 15, 2006 and by press release on June 16, 2006. 

Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

 REASON Possible contamination of animal feeds with ruminent derived meat and bone meal.. 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 10,878.06 tons 

DISTRIBUTION Nationwide

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR July 12, 2006

###


Subject: MAD COW FEED BAN WARNING LETTER ISSUED MAY 17, 2006 

Date: June 27, 2006 at 7:42 am PST Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration

New Orleans District 297 Plus Park Blvd. Nashville, TN 37217

Telephone: 615-781-5380 Fax: 615-781-5391

May 17, 2006

WARNING LETTER NO.. 2006-NOL-06

FEDERAL EXPRESS OVERNIGHT DELIVERY

Mr. William Shirley, Jr., Owner Louisiana.DBA Riegel By-Products 2621 State Street Dallas, Texas 75204

Dear Mr. Shirley:

On February 12, 17, 21, and 22, 2006, a U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) investigator inspected your rendering plant, located at 509 Fortson Street, Shreveport, Louisiana. The inspection revealed significant deviations from the requirements set forth in Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 589.2000 [21 CFR 589.2000], Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed. This regulation is intended to prevent the establishment and amplification of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). You failed to follow the requirements of this regulation; products being manufactured and distributed by your facility are misbranded within the meaning of Section 403(a)(1) [21 USC 343(a)(1)] of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act).

Our investigation found you failed to provide measures, including sufficient written procedures, to prevent commingling or cross-contamination and to maintain sufficient written procedures [21 CFR 589.2000(e)] because:

You failed to use clean-out procedures or other means adequate to prevent carryover of protein derived from mammalian tissues into animal protein or feeds which may be used for ruminants. For example, your facility uses the same equipment to process mammalian and poultry tissues. However, you use only hot water to clean the cookers between processing tissues from each species. You do not clean the auger, hammer mill, grinder, and spouts after processing mammalian tissues.

You failed to maintain written procedures specifying the clean-out procedures or other means to prevent carryover of protein derived from mammalian tissues into feeds which may be used for ruminants.

As a result . the poultry meal you manufacture may contain protein derived from mammalian tissues prohibited in ruminant feed. Pursuant to 21 CFR 589.2000(e)(1)(i), any products containing or may contain protein derived from mammalian tissues must be labeled, "Do not feed to cattle or other ruminants." Since you failed to label a product which may contain protein derived from mammalian tissues with the required cautionary statement. the poultry meal is misbranded under Section 403(a)(1) [21 USC 343(a)(1)] of the Act.

This letter is not intended as an all-inclusive list of violations at your facility. As a manufacturer of materials intended for animal feed use, you are responsible for ensuring your overall operation and the products you manufacture and distribute are in compliance with the law. You should take prompt action to correct these violations, and you should establish a system whereby violations do not recur. Failure to promptly correct these violations may result in regulatory action, such as seizure and/or injunction, without further notice.

You should notify this office in writing within 15 working days of receiving this letter, outlining the specific steps you have taken to bring your firm into compliance with the law. Your response should include an explanation of each step taken to correct the violations and prevent their recurrence. If corrective action cannot be completed within 15 working days, state the reason for the delay and the date by which the corrections will be completed. Include copies of any available documentation demonstrating corrections have been made.

Your reply should be directed to Mark W. Rivero, Compliance Officer, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2424 Edenborn Avenue, Suite 410, Metairie, Louisiana 70001. If you have questions regarding any issue in this letter, please contact Mr. Rivero at (504) 219-8818, extension 103.

Sincerely,

/S

Carol S. Sanchez Acting District Director New Orleans District 


PLEASE NOTE, THE FDA URLS FOR OLD WARNING LETTERS ARE OBSOLETE AND DO NOT WORK IN MOST CASES.. I LOOKED UP THE OLD ONE ABOVE AND FOUND IT, BUT HAVE NOT DONE THAT FOR THE OTHERS TO FOLLOW. THE DATA IS VALID THOUGH! 

Subject: MAD COW PROTEIN IN COMMERCE USA 2006 RECALL UPDATE 

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." 

Reply-To: SAFETY 

Date: Mon, 9 Oct 2006 14:10:37 -0500 

Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALL USA SEPT 6, 2006 1961.72 TONS 

IN COMMERCE AL, TN, AND WV 

Date: September 6, 2006 at 7:58 am PST

PRODUCT a) EVSRC Custom dairy feed, Recall # V-130-6; b) Performance Chick Starter, Recall # V-131-6; c) Performance Quail Grower, Recall # V-132-6; d) Performance Pheasant Finisher, Recall # V-133-6. CODE None RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Donaldson & Hasenbein/dba J&R Feed Service, Inc., Cullman, AL, by telephone on June 23, 2006 and by letter dated July 19, 2006. 

Firm initiated recall is complete.

REASON Dairy and poultry feeds were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein.

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 477.72 tons 

DISTRIBUTION AL

______________________________

snip...


 Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALLS ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 9, 2006 KY, LA, MS, AL, GA, AND TN 11,000+ TONS 

Date: August 16, 2006 at 9:19 am PST RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINE - CLASS II

______________________________

snip...

______________________________

PRODUCT Bulk custom dairy pre-mixes, Recall # V-120-6 

CODE None 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Ware Milling Inc., Houston, MS, by telephone on June 23, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete.

REASON Possible contamination of dairy animal feeds with ruminant derived meat and bone meal..

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 350 tons DISTRIBUTION AL and MS

______________________________

PRODUCT 

a) Tucker Milling, LLC Tm 32% Sinking Fish Grower, #2680-Pellet, 50 lb. bags, Recall # V-121-6; 

b) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder Pellet, 50 lb. bags, Recall # V-122-6; 

c) Tucker Milling, LLC #31232 Game Bird Grower, 50 lb. bags, Recall # V-123-6; 

d) Tucker Milling, LLC 31227-Crumble, Game Bird Starter, BMD Medicated, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-124-6; 

e) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-125-6; 

f) Tucker Milling, LLC #30230, 30 % Turkey Starter, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-126-6; 

g) Tucker Milling, LLC #30116, TM Broiler Finisher, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-127-6 

CODE All products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/20/2006 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Recalling Firm: Tucker Milling LLC, Guntersville, AL, by telephone and visit on June 20, 2006, and by letter on June 23, 2006. Manufacturer: H. J. Baker and Brothers Inc., Stamford, CT. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

REASON Poultry and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein were not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 7,541-50 lb bags

DISTRIBUTION AL, GA, MS, and TN

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 9, 2006

###


 Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALL AL AND FL VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 TONS

Products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006 

Date: August 6, 2006 at 6:16 pm PST 

PRODUCT 

a) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish, Recall # V-100-6; 

b) Performance Sheep Pell W/Decox/A/N, medicated, net wt. 50 lbs, Recall # V-101-6; 

c) Pro 40% Swine Conc Meal -- 50 lb, Recall # V-102-6; d) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish Food Medicated, Recall # V-103-6; 

e) "Big Jim's" BBB Deer Ration, Big Buck Blend, Recall # V-104-6; 

f) CO-OP 40% Hog Supplement Medicated Pelleted, Tylosin 100 grams/ton, 50 lb. bag, Recall # V-105-6; 

g) Pig Starter Pell II, 18% W/MCDX Medicated 282020, Carbadox -- 0.0055%, Recall # V-106-6; 

h) CO-OP STARTER-GROWER CRUMBLES, Complete Feed for Chickens from Hatch to 20 Weeks, Medicated, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, 25 and 50 Lbs, Recall # V-107-6; 

i) CO-OP LAYING PELLETS, Complete Feed for Laying Chickens, Recall # 108-6; 

j) CO-OP LAYING CRUMBLES, Recall # V-109-6; 

k) CO-OP QUAIL FLIGHT CONDITIONER MEDICATED, net wt 50 Lbs, Recall # V-110-6; 

l) CO-OP QUAIL STARTER MEDICATED, Net Wt. 50 Lbs, Recall # V-111-6; 

m) CO-OP QUAIL GROWER MEDICATED, 50 Lbs, Recall # V-112-6 

CODE 

Product manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Alabama Farmers Cooperative, Inc., Decatur, AL, by telephone, fax, email and visit on June 9, 2006. FDA initiated recall is complete.

REASON Animal and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 tons DISTRIBUTION AL and FL

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 2, 2006

###


 MAD COW FEED RECALL USA EQUALS 10,878.06 TONS NATIONWIDE Sun Jul 16, 2006 09:22 71.248..128.67

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINE -- CLASS II

______________________________

PRODUCT 

a) PRO-LAK, bulk weight, Protein Concentrate for Lactating Dairy Animals, Recall # V-079-6; 

b) ProAmino II, FOR PREFRESH AND LACTATING COWS, net weight 50lb (22.6 kg), Recall # V-080-6; 

c) PRO-PAK, MARINE & ANIMAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATE FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEED, Recall # V-081-6; 

d) Feather Meal, Recall # V-082-6 

CODE a) Bulk b) None c) Bulk d) Bulk 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER H. J. Baker & Bro., Inc., Albertville, AL, by telephone on June 15, 2006 and by press release on June 16, 2006. 

Firm initiated recall is ongoing.

REASON Possible contamination of animal feeds with ruminent derived meat and bone meal.

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 10,878.06 tons

DISTRIBUTION Nationwide

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR July 12, 2006

###


10 years post mad cow feed ban August 1997 

10,000,000+ LBS. of PROHIBITED BANNED MAD COW FEED I.E. BLOOD LACED MBM IN COMMERCE USA 2007 

Date: March 21, 2007 at 2:27 pm PST 

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINES -- CLASS II PRODUCT 

Bulk cattle feed made with recalled Darling's 85% Blood Meal, Flash Dried, Recall # V-024-2007 CODE Cattle feed delivered between 01/12/2007 and 01/26/2007 RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Pfeiffer, Arno, Inc, Greenbush, WI. by conversation on February 5, 2007. 

Firm initiated recall is ongoing. 

REASON Blood meal used to make cattle feed was recalled because it was cross- contaminated with prohibited bovine meat and bone meal that had been manufactured on common equipment and labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement. 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 42,090 lbs. DISTRIBUTION WI 

___________________________________ 

PRODUCT 

Custom dairy premix products: 

MNM ALL PURPOSE Pellet, 

HILLSIDE/CDL Prot- Buffer Meal, 

LEE, M.-CLOSE UP PX Pellet, 

HIGH DESERT/ GHC LACT Meal, 

TATARKA, 

M CUST PROT Meal, 

SUNRIDGE/CDL PROTEIN Blend, 

LOURENZO, K PVM DAIRY Meal, 

DOUBLE B DAIRY/GHC LAC Mineral, 

WEST PIONT/GHC CLOSEUP Mineral, 

WEST POINT/GHC LACT Meal, 

JENKS, 

J/COMPASS PROTEIN Meal, 

COPPINI - 8# SPECIAL DAIRY Mix, 

GULICK, L-LACT Meal (Bulk), 

TRIPLE J - PROTEIN/LACTATION, 

ROCK CREEK/GHC MILK Mineral, 

BETTENCOURT/GHC S.SIDE MK-MN, 

BETTENCOURT #1/GHC MILK MINR, 

V&C DAIRY/GHC LACT Meal, 

VEENSTRA, F/GHC LACT Meal, 

SMUTNY, A- BYPASS ML W/SMARTA, 

Recall # V-025-2007 

CODE The firm does not utilize a code - only shipping documentation with commodity and weights identified. 

RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER Rangen, Inc, Buhl, ID, by letters on February 13 and 14, 2007. 

Firm initiated recall is complete. 

REASON Products manufactured from bulk feed containing blood meal that was cross contaminated with prohibited meat and bone meal and the labeling did not bear cautionary BSE statement. 

VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 9,997,976 lbs. 

DISTRIBUTION ID and NV 

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR MARCH 21, 2007 


ALABAMA MAD COW FEED IN COMMERCE 2006

Office of Inspector General Semiannual Report to Congress FY 2007 - 2nd Half

Two Texas Companies Sentenced and Fined for Misbranding Meat Products In April 2007, two closely held and related Texas companies pled guilty in Federal court and were sentenced to 12 months of probation and ordered to pay $10,250 in fines for misbranding meat products. One of the companies sold adulterated meat products to a retail store in New Mexico. Additionally, portions of the invoices failed to properly and consistently identify the meat products as being from cattle more than 30 months old at time of slaughter. This information is required to be disclosed because of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or "mad cow disease") concerns. No adulterated meat reached consumers.


THE USDA JUNE 2004 ENHANCED BSE SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM WAS TERRIBLY FLAWED ;

CDC DR. PAUL BROWN TSE EXPERT COMMENTS 2006

In an article today for United Press International, science reporter Steve Mitchell writes:

Analysis: What that mad cow means

By STEVE MITCHELL UPI Senior Medical Correspondent

WASHINGTON, March 15 (UPI) -- The U.S. Department of Agriculture was quick to assure the public earlier this week that the third case of mad cow disease did not pose a risk to them, but what federal officials have not acknowledged is that this latest case indicates the deadly disease has been circulating in U.S. herds for at least a decade.

The second case, which was detected last year in a Texas cow and which USDA officials were reluctant to verify, was approximately 12 years old.

These two cases (the latest was detected in an Alabama cow) present a picture of the disease having been here for 10 years or so, since it is thought that cows usually contract the disease from contaminated feed they consume as calves. The concern is that humans can contract a fatal, incurable, brain-wasting illness from consuming beef products contaminated with the mad cow pathogen.

"The fact the Texas cow showed up fairly clearly implied the existence of other undetected cases," Dr. Paul Brown, former medical director of the National Institutes of Health's Laboratory for Central Nervous System Studies and an expert on mad cow-like diseases, told United Press International. "The question was, 'How many?' and we still can't answer that."

Brown, who is preparing a scientific paper based on the latest two mad cow cases to estimate the maximum number of infected cows that occurred in the United States, said he has "absolutely no confidence in USDA tests before one year ago" because of the agency's reluctance to retest the Texas cow that initially tested positive.

USDA officials finally retested the cow and confirmed it was infected seven months later, but only at the insistence of the agency's inspector general.

"Everything they did on the Texas cow makes everything they did before 2005 suspect," Brown said.

Despite this, Brown said the U.S. prevalence of mad cow, formally known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or BSE, did not significantly threaten human or cattle health.

"Overall, my view is BSE is highly unlikely to pose any important risk either in cattle feed or human feed," he said.

However, Jean Halloran of Consumers Union in Yonkers, N.Y., said consumers should be troubled by the USDA's secrecy and its apparent plan to dramatically cut back the number of mad cow tests it conducts.

"Consumers should be very concerned about how little we know about the USDA's surveillance program and the failure of the USDA to reveal really important details," Halloran told UPI. "Consumers have to be really concerned if they're going to cut back the program," she added.

Last year the USDA tested more than 300,000 animals for the disease, but it has proposed, even in light of a third case, scaling back the program to 40,000 tests annually.

"They seem to be, in terms of actions and policies, taking a lot more seriously the concerns of the cattle industry than the concerns of consumers," Halloran said. "It's really hard to know what it takes to get this administration to take action to protect the public."

The USDA has insisted that the safeguards of a ban on incorporating cow tissue into cattle feed (which is thought to spread the disease) and removal of the most infectious parts of cows, such as the brain and spinal cord, protect consumers. But the agency glosses over the fact that both of these systems have been revealed to be inadequately implemented.

The feed ban, which is enforced by the Food and Drug Administration, has been criticized by the Government Accountability Office in two reports, the most recent coming just last year. The GAO said the FDA's enforcement of the ban continues to have weaknesses that "undermine the nation's firewall against BSE."

USDA documents released last year showed more than 1,000 violations of the regulations requiring the removal of brains and spinal cords in at least 35 states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, with some plants being cited repeatedly for infractions. In addition, a violation of similar regulations that apply to beef exported to Japan is the reason why Japan closed its borders to U.S. beef in January six weeks after reopening them.

Other experts also question the adequacy of the USDA's surveillance system. The USDA insists the prevalence of mad cow disease is low, but the agency has provided few details of its surveillance program, making it difficult for outside experts to know if the agency's monitoring plan is sufficient.

"It's impossible to judge the adequacy of the surveillance system without having a breakdown of the tested population by age and risk status," Elizabeth Mumford, a veterinarian and BSE expert at Safe Food Solutions in Bern, Switzerland, a company that provides advice on reducing mad cow risk to industry and governments, told UPI.

"Everybody would be happier and more confident and in a sense it might be able to go away a little bit for (the USDA) if they would just publish a breakdown on the tests," Mumford added.

UPI requested detailed records about animals tested under the USDA's surveillance plan via the Freedom of Information Act in May 2004 but nearly two years later has not received any corresponding documents from the agency, despite a federal law requiring agencies to comply within 30 days. This leaves open the question of whether the USDA is withholding the information, does not have the information or is so haphazardly organized that it cannot locate it.

Mumford said the prevalence of the disease in U.S. herds is probably quite low, but there have probably been other cases that have so far gone undetected. "They're only finding a very small fraction of that low prevalence," she said.

Mumford expressed surprise at the lack of concern about the deadly disease from American consumers. "I would expect the U.S. public to be more concerned," she said.

Markus Moser, a molecular biologist and chief executive officer of Prionics, a Swiss firm that manufactures BSE test kits, told UPI one concern is that if people are infected, the mad cow pathogen could become "humanized" or more easily transmitted from person to person.

"Transmission would be much easier, through all kinds of medical procedures" and even through the blood supply, Moser said.

© Copyright 2006 United Press International, Inc. All Rights Reserved



CDC - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt ... Dr. Paul Brown is Senior Research Scientist in the Laboratory of Central Nervous System ... Address for correspondence: Paul Brown, Building 36, Room 4A-05, ...


PAUL BROWN COMMENT TO ME ON THIS ISSUE

Tuesday, September 12, 2006 11:10 AM

"Actually, Terry, I have been critical of the USDA handling of the mad cow issue for some years, and with Linda Detwiler and others sent lengthy detailed critiques and recommendations to both the USDA and the Canadian Food Agency." ........TSS


Subject: USDA OIG SEMIANNUAL REPORT TO CONGRESS FY 2007 1st Half (bogus BSE sampling FROM HEALTHY USDA CATTLE)

Date: June 21, 2007 at 2:49 pm PST

Owner and Corporation Plead Guilty to Defrauding Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Surveillance Program

An Arizona meat processing company and its owner pled guilty in February 2007 to charges of theft of Government funds, mail fraud, and wire fraud. The owner and his company defrauded the BSE Surveillance Program when they falsified BSE Surveillance Data Collection Forms and then submitted payment requests to USDA for the services. In addition to the targeted sample population (those cattle that were more than 30 months old or had other risk factors for BSE), the owner submitted to USDA, or caused to be submitted, BSE obex (brain stem) samples from healthy USDA-inspected cattle. As a result, the owner fraudulently received approximately $390,000. Sentencing is scheduled for May 2007.

snip...

Topics that will be covered in ongoing or planned reviews under Goal 1 include:

soundness of BSE maintenance sampling (APHIS),

implementation of Performance-Based Inspection System enhancements for specified risk material (SRM) violations and improved inspection controls over SRMs (FSIS and APHIS),

snip...

The findings and recommendations from these efforts will be covered in future semiannual reports as the relevant audits and investigations are completed.

4 USDA OIG SEMIANNUAL REPORT TO CONGRESS FY 2007 1st Half


OR, what the Honorable Phyllis Fong of the OIG found ;

Audit Report Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Surveillance Program ­ Phase II and Food Safety and Inspection Service

Controls Over BSE Sampling, Specified Risk Materials, and Advanced Meat Recovery Products - Phase III

Report No. 50601-10-KC January 2006

Finding 2 Inherent Challenges in Identifying and Testing High-Risk Cattle Still Remain


Thursday, October 22, 2015

Former Ag Secretary Ann Veneman talks women in agriculture and we talk mad cow disease USDA and what really happened


TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 7, 2017 

OIE Opens Texas Office Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE, Scrapie, CWD, TSE Prion


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 2017 

Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease CJD National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined to December 14, 2017


Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan.
 
*** This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada.
 
*** It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries. ***
 
see page 176 of 201 pages...tss
 
 
*** Singeltary reply ; Molecular, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of BSE in Canada Singeltary reply;
 
 
Wednesday, July 15, 2015
 
Additional BSE TSE prion testing detects pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc by PMCA only, how many cases have we missed?
 
 
***however in 1 C-type challenged animal, Prion 2015 Poster Abstracts S67 PrPsc was not detected using rapid tests for BSE.
 
***Subsequent testing resulted in the detection of pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc detection by PMCA only.
 
*** IBNC Tauopathy or TSE Prion disease, it appears, no one is sure ***
 
Posted by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. on 03 Jul 2015 at 16:53 GMT
 




Xavier Bosch

Published: August 2003


Summary;

“My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.”

49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from chronic wasting disease (CWD) the relative of mad cow disease seen among deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish search did not lead him to the smoking gun linking CWD to a similar disease in North American people, it did uncover a largely disappointing situation.

Singeltary was greatly demoralised at the few attempts to monitor the occurrence of CJD and CWD in the USA. Only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal TSEs should be reportable nationwide and internationally, he complained in a letter to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). "I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source."

Until recently, CWD was thought to be confined to the wild in a small region in Colorado. But since early 2002, it has been reported in other areas, including Wisconsin, South Dakota, and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Indeed, the occurrence of CWD in states that were not endemic previously increased concern about a widespread outbreak and possible transmission to people and cattle.

To date, experimental studies have proven that the CWD agent can be transmitted to cattle by intracerebral inoculation and that it can cross the mucous membranes of the digestive tract to initiate infection in lymphoid tissue before invasion of the central nervous system. Yet the plausibility of CWD spreading to people has remained elusive.

Part of the problem seems to stem from the US surveillance system. CJD is only reported in those areas known to be endemic foci of CWD. Moreover, US authorities have been criticised for not having performed enough prionic tests in farm deer and elk.

Although in November last year the US Food and Drug Administration issued a directive to state public-health and agriculture officials prohibiting material from CWD-positive animals from being used as an ingredient in feed for any animal species, epidemiological control and research in the USA has been quite different from the situation in the UK and Europe regarding BSE.

"Getting data on TSEs in the USA from the government is like pulling teeth", Singeltary argues. "You get it when they want you to have it, and only what they want you to have."

Norman Foster, director of the Cognitive Disorders Clinic at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI, USA), says that "current surveillance of prion disease in people in the USA is inadequate to detect whether CWD is occurring in human beings"; adding that, "the cases that we know about are reassuring, because they do not suggest the appearance of a new variant of CJD in the USA or atypical features in patients that might be exposed to CWD. However, until we establish a system that identifies and analyses a high proportion of suspected prion disease cases we will not know for sure". The USA should develop a system modelled on that established in the UK, he points out.

Ali Samii, a neurologist at Seattle VA Medical Center who recently reported the cases of three hunters "two of whom were friends" who died from pathologically confirmed CJD, says that "at present there are insufficient data to claim transmission of CWD into humans"; adding that "[only] by asking [the questions of venison consumption and deer/elk hunting] in every case can we collect suspect cases and look into the plausibility of transmission further". Samii argues that by making both doctors and hunters more aware of the possibility of prions spreading through eating venison, doctors treating hunters with dementia can consider a possible prion disease, and doctors treating CJD patients will know to ask whether they ate venison.

CDC spokesman Ermias Belay says that the CDC "will not be investigating the [Samii] cases because there is no evidence that the men ate CWD-infected meat". He notes that although "the likelihood of CWD jumping the species barrier to infect humans cannot be ruled out 100%" and that "[we] cannot be 100% sure that CWD does not exist in humans& the data seeking evidence of CWD transmission to humans have been very limited". 




26 March 2003 

Terry S. Singeltary, retired (medically) CJD WATCH 

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc? 



2001 FDA CJD TSE Prion Singeltary Submission 



 *** U.S.A. 50 STATE BSE MAD COW CONFERENCE CALL Jan. 9, 2001 



2 January 2000 British Medical Journal U.S. 

Scientist should be concerned with a CJD epidemic in the U.S., as well 



15 November 1999 British Medical Journal hvCJD in the USA * BSE in U.S. 



Sunday, February 25, 2018 

PRION ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE 2018 MAY, 22-25 A REVIEW


SATURDAY, MARCH 10, 2018 

FINLAND REPORTS FIRST CASE OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION IN A moose or European elk (Alces alces)


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 05, 2017 

Norway 30,000 deer animals have so far been tested for Skrantesyke chronic wasting disease CWD TSE PRION DISEASE


DECEMBER 14, 2017, 20 YEARS POST DOD MOM HEIDENHAIN VARIANT CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE HVCJD DECEMBER 14, 1997, JUST MADE A PROMISE TO MOM, AND YOU DON'T BREAK PROMISES WITH YOUR MOM, NEVER FORGET, AND NEVER LET THEM FORGET...

wasted days and wasted nights...Freddy Fender

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.,  Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

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