Tuesday, June 20, 2017

Prion 2017 Conference Transmissible prions in the skin of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients


Prion 2017 Conference Transmissible prions in the skin of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients 

Dr. Wenguan Zou1, Dr. Christina Orru2, Jue Yuan1, Brian Appleby1, Baiya Li1, Dane Winner1, Yian Zhan1,3, Mark Rodgers1, Jason Rarick1, Robert Wyza1, Tripti Joshi1, Gongxian Wang3, Mark Cohen1, Shulin Zhang1, Bradley Groveman2, Robert Petersen1, James Ironside4, Miguel Quinones-Mateu1, Jiri Safar1, Qingzhong Kong1, Byron Caughey2 

1Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, United States, 2Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, United States, 3Nanchang University, Nanchang, China, 4Universitv of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom 

Aims: Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the most common human prion disease, is transmissible by neuroinvasive iatrogenic routes due to abundant prion infectivity in the central nervous system (CNS). The disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) and its infectivity have never been detected in skin from sCJD patients; however, some epidemiological studies have associated sCJD risk with skin-involved non-CNS surgeries. The aims of our study were to explore potential prion seeding activity and infectivity of skin and the feasibility of skin-based CJD diagnosis. 

Methods: Skin samples were collected at autopsy or biopsy from twenty-one sCJD, two variant CJD, and fifteen non-CJD patients and analysed by Western blotting and real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT- QulC) for PrPSc. Infectivity of skin from two sCJD patients was determined by bioassay using two lines of humanized transgenic (Tg) mice. 

Results: Western blotting demonstrated PrPSc in the skin of one of five deceased sCJD patients examined. However, the more sensitive RT-QuIC assay detected prion-seeding activity in skin from all 23 CJD decedents but not in non-CJD controls, indicating preliminary ClD diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of 100% (95% confidence intervals of 85-100%, and 78-100%, respectively). Although sCJD skins contained ~102-105-fold lower RT-QuIC seeding activity than sCJD brains, ten out of twelve mice from two Tg mouse lines inoculated with skin homogenates of two patients with two different subtypes of sCJD succumbed to prion disease within 450 days after inoculation. 

Conclusions: O sCJD patients' skin may contain both detectable prion seeding activity and transmissible prions. Our findings not only suggest a new basis for diagnostic sCJD testing, but also raise concerns about the potential for iatrogenic sCJD transmission via skin. (Funded by the CJD Foundation, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as others) 

DISORDERS PRION 2017  DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE



*sCJD patients' skin may contain both detectable prion seeding activity and transmissible prions. 

*Our findings not only suggest a new basis for diagnostic sCJD testing, but also raise concerns about the potential for iatrogenic sCJD transmission via skin. 


Oral Session14:45~15:00O-12 Wenquan Zou

*** PrPSc in the skin of CJD patients


Accessing transmissibility and diagnostic marker of skin prions.

Kong, Qingzhong Safar, Jiri G. Zou, Wen-Quan

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States

Abstract The fatal, transmissible animal and human prion diseases are characterized by the deposition in the brain of a proteinase K (PK)-resistant infectious prion protein (PrPSc), an isoform derived from the cellular protein (PrPC) through misfolding. A definitive antemortem diagnosis is virtually impossible for most patients because of the difficulty in obtaining the brain tissues by biopsy. Recently, PrPSc has been reported to be detected in the skin of experimentally or naturally scrapie-infected animals (Thomzig et al., 2007). Consistent with this finding, we have observed PK-resistant PrP in the skin of a patient with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), an acquired form of human prion disease caused by bovine prion (Notari et al., 2010). Unexpectedly, our latest preliminary study identified two types of PK-resistant PrP molecules [with gel mobility similar to the PrPSc types 1 and 2 from the brain of sporadic CJD (sCJD)] in the fibroblast cells extracted from the skin of clinical sCJD patients and asymptomatic subjects carrying PrP mutations linked to familial CJD (fCJD). We also detected PrPSc in the skin of humanized transgenic (Tg) mice inoculated intracerebrally with a human prion. Moreover, prion infectivity has been observed in the skin of infected greater kudu (Cunningham et al., 2004) and a murine prion inoculated to mice via skin scarification can not only propagate in the skin, but also spread to the brain to cause prion disease (Wathne et al., 2012). We hypothesize that the skin of patients with prion disease harbors prion infectivity and the presence of PK-resistant PrP in the skin is a novel diagnostic marker for preclinical CJD patients. To test the hypotheses, we propose to (1) determine prion infectivity of the skin- derived fibroblasts and skin of sCJD patients and asymptomatic PrP-mutation carriers using humanized Tg mouse bioassay, (2) to pinpoint the earliest stage at which PrPSc becomes detectable in the skin of prion- infected Tg mice, and (3) to detect PrPSc in the skin of various human prion diseases, using conventional as well as highly sensitive RT-QuIC assays for both (2) and (3). If successful, our proposal may not only help prevent potential transmission of human prion diseases but also enable definitive and less intrusive antemortem diagnosis of prion diseases. Finally, knowledge generated from this study may also enhance our understanding of other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.

Public Health Relevance Currently it is unclear whether or not the skin of patients with prion diseases is infectious and, moreover, there is no alternative preclinical definitive testing or the brain biopsy in the prion diseases. The aim of our proposal is to address the issues by detection of the infectivity of patients' skin samples using animal bioassay and a new highly sensitive RT-QuIC assay. We believe that our study will not only provide insights into the pathogenesis and transmissibility of prion disease but also will develop preclinical definitive testing for prion disease.

Funding Agency Agency National Institute of Health (NIH)

Institute National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)

Type Exploratory/Developmental Grants (R21)

Project # 1R21NS096626-01

Application # 9092119

Study Section Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1)

Program Officer Wong, May Project Start 2016-02-01

Project End 2018-01-31

Budget Start 2016-02-01

Budget End 2017-01-31

Support Year 1

Fiscal Year 2016

Total Cost

Indirect Cost Institution Name Case Western Reserve University

Department Pathology

Type Schools of Medicine

DUNS # 077758407

City Cleveland

State OH

Country United States

Zip Code 44106



TUESDAY, MAY 10, 2016 

Accessing transmissibility and diagnostic marker of skin prions


Accumulation of Pathological Prion Protein PrPSc in the Skin of Animals with Experimental and Natural Scrapie

Achim Thomzig ,Walter Schulz-Schaeffer ,Arne Wrede,Wilhelm Wemheuer,Bertram Brenig,Christine Kratzel,Karin Lemmer,Michael Beekes Published: May 25, 2007 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.0030066

Abstract

Prion infectivity and its molecular marker, the pathological prion protein PrPSc, accumulate in the central nervous system and often also in lymphoid tissue of animals or humans affected by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Recently, PrPSc was found in tissues previously considered not to be invaded by prions (e.g., skeletal muscles). Here, we address the question of whether prions target the skin and show widespread PrPSc deposition in this organ in hamsters perorally or parenterally challenged with scrapie. In hamsters fed with scrapie, PrPScwas detected before the onset of symptoms, but the bulk of skin-associated PrPSc accumulated in the clinical phase. PrPSc was localized in nerve fibres within the skin but not in keratinocytes, and the deposition of PrPSc in skin showed no dependence from the route of infection and lymphotropic dissemination. The data indicated a neurally mediated centrifugal spread of prions to the skin. Furthermore, in a follow-up study, we examined sheep naturally infected with scrapie and detected PrPSc by Western blotting in skin samples from two out of five animals. Our findings point to the skin as a potential reservoir of prions, which should be further investigated in relation to disease transmission. Author Summary

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting the central nervous system. According to the prion hypothesis, TSEs are caused by proteinaceous infectious particles (“prions”) that consist essentially of PrPSc, an aberrant form of the prion protein with a pathologically altered folding and/or aggregation structure. Scrapie of sheep, chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) of humans are prominent examples of acquired prion diseases. To further pinpoint the peripheral tissues that could serve as reservoirs of prions in the mammalian body and from which these pathogens could be potentially disseminated into the environment and transmitted to other individuals, we examined the skin of hamsters perorally challenged with scrapie and of naturally infected scrapie sheep for the presence of PrPSc. We show that PrPSc can accumulate in the skin at late stages of incubation, and that the protein is located primarily in small nerve fibres within this organ. The question of whether the skin may also provide a reservoir for prions in CWD, BSE, or vCJD, and the role of the skin in relation to the natural transmission of scrapie in the field needs further investigation. Discussion In this study we have shown that the skin provides a reservoir for PrPSc, the biochemical marker of prion infectivity, in five different hamster TSE models, independently of whether the animals were challenged with scrapie via the p.o., i.c., or f.p. route, cerebral implantation of scrapie-contaminated s.w., or i.c. inoculation of a hamster-adapted BSE agent. Furthermore, PrPSc could be demonstrated for the first time in skin specimens from sheep naturally infected with scrapie, though in a limited number of sites investigated and at low amounts. In a time-course study using hamsters fed with scrapie agent, we were able to detect PrPSc in the skin before the onset of clinical symptoms, but the bulk of skin-associated PrPSc accumulated in the clinical phase of the disease. From our Western blot findings, the final concentration of PrPSc in the skin of hamsters seems to be approximately 5,000–10,000 times lower than that found in the brain. This would correspond to an infectivity titre of ~ 1 × 105 to 2 × 105 50% i.c. infective doses (ID50i.c.) per gram of skin tissue. A similar infectivity titre was previously estimated from Western blot findings for skeletal muscle tissue of clinically ill hamsters perorally challenged with 263K scrapie [23]. 



PLoS One. 2010; 5(1): e8765. Published online 2010 Jan 19. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008765 

Multiorgan Detection and Characterization of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in a Case of Variant CJD Examined in the United States

In addition to the brain and other organs known to be prion positive in vCJD, such as the lymphoreticular system, pituitary and adrenal glands, and gastrointestinal tract, PrPres was also detected for the first time in the dura mater, liver, pancreas, kidney, ovary, uterus, and skin.

Conclusions/Significance

Our results indicate that the number of organs affected in vCJD is greater than previously realized and further underscore the risk of iatrogenic transmission in vCJD. 

 The major finding of the present study is the demonstration that PrPres is present in a number of non-CNS tissues and organs which previous studies had reported as free of PrPres (Table 1 and ​and2)2) [14]–[19, P. Brown, unpublished data]. These tissues include the dura mater, skin, liver, kidney, pancreas, descending colon, uterus and ovary (Table 2 and Fig. 3). 

 The present study also demonstrates for the first time the presence of PrPres in the skin in a human prion disease. Previously, PrPres has been detected in the skin from animals with experimental or naturally occurring scrapie [47] as well as in the antler velvet of elk affected by CWD [48]. 

All these considerations notwithstanding, the widespread presence of PrPres in visceral organs that we observed in the present case further reinforces the concerns over iatrogenic transmission of vCJD. These concerns are already compelling given the multiple reports of vCJD transmission by blood transfusion. 


Thursday, January 28, 2010

Multiorgan Detection and Characterization of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in a Case of Variant CJD Examined in the United States

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2010/01/multiorgan-detection-and.html

A Kiss of a Prion: New Implications for Oral Transmissibility 

The transmissibility of scrapie among sheep (intraspecies) is well recognized. It must be emphasized that horizontal transfer (from one individual to another) of scrapie is the main route of infection, because vertical transmission of disease from mother to offspring via milk or placental tissue occurs infrequently. Thus, in view of the report by Maddison et al, the oral transmissibility of prions among sheep may serve as a major route for horizontal scrapie transfer. This occurrence is plausible because sheep often lick each other. Maddison et al [10] indicate that, because of the similarities in prion tissue distribution, their implications for the oral transmission of ovine scrapie might be true for other prion diseases, such as cervid chronic wasting disease and human vCJD. If this is true for humans, a kiss of a prion may sometimes have lethal consequences.



PERSON TO PERSON TRANSMISSION OF THE TSE PRION DISEASE, never say never. as the disease mutates, it becomes more virulent in some cases, and cwd is efficiently transmitted from cervid to cervid. there are now multiple strains of CWD in cervids, as with the TSE prion disease in bovine, sheep and goats, and we now have the atypical TSE in these species, that have mutated, and some strains _have_ become more virulent. we now have younger humans dying from the TSE prion disease, with shorter incubation period, and that are much younger. human to human casual transmission of the TSE prion disease...again, never say never. ...TSS

see more here;


The occurrence of the disease in a patient who had contact with cases of familial C.J.D., but was not genetically related, has been described in Chile (Galvez et al., 1980) and in France (Brown et al., 1979b). In Chile the patient was related by marriage, but with no consanguinity, and had social contact with subsequently affected family members for 13 years before developing the disease. The contact case in France also married into a family in which C.J.D. was prevalent and had close contact with an affected member. In neither instance did the spouse of the non-familial case have the disease. The case described in this report was similarly related to affected family members and social contact had occurred for 20 years prior to developing C.J.D. If contact transmission had occurred, the minimum transmission period would be 11 years. Contact between sporadic cases has not been described and it is remarkable that possible contact transmissions have all been with familial cases. No method of transmission by casual social contact has been suggested.

***The occurrence of contact cases raises the possibility that transmission in families may be effected by an unusually virulent strain of the agent.

snip...see full text here;



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 13, 2016

Prion-Seeding Activity Is widely Distributed in Tissues of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients


TUESDAY, MARCH 28, 2017 

Passage of scrapie to deer results in a new phenotype upon return passage to sheep



Circulation of prions within dust on a scrapie affected farm


Kevin C Gough1, Claire A Baker2, Hugh A Simmons3, Steve A Hawkins3 and Ben C Maddison2*

Abstract

Prion diseases are fatal neurological disorders that affect humans and animals. Scrapie of sheep/goats and Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) of deer/elk are contagious prion diseases where environmental reservoirs have a direct link to the transmission of disease. Using protein misfolding cyclic amplification we demonstrate that scrapie PrPSc can be detected within circulating dusts that are present on a farm that is naturally contaminated with sheep scrapie. The presence of infectious scrapie within airborne dusts may represent a possible route of infection and illustrates the difficulties that may be associated with the effective decontamination of such scrapie affected premises.

snip...

Discussion

We present biochemical data illustrating the airborne movement of scrapie containing material within a contaminated farm environment. We were able to detect scrapie PrPSc within extracts from dusts collected over a 70 day period, in the absence of any sheep activity. We were also able to detect scrapie PrPSc within dusts collected within pasture at 30 m but not at 60 m distance away from the scrapie contaminated buildings, suggesting that the chance of contamination of pasture by scrapie contaminated dusts decreases with distance from contaminated farm buildings. PrPSc amplification by sPMCA has been shown to correlate with infectivity and amplified products have been shown to be infectious [14,15]. These experiments illustrate the potential for low dose scrapie infectivity to be present within such samples. We estimate low ng levels of scrapie positive brain equivalent were deposited per m2 over 70 days, in a barn previously occupied by sheep affected with scrapie. This movement of dusts and the accumulation of low levels of scrapie infectivity within this environment may in part explain previous observations where despite stringent pen decontamination regimens healthy lambs still became scrapie infected after apparent exposure from their environment alone [16]. The presence of sPMCA seeding activity and by inference, infectious prions within dusts, and their potential for airborne dissemination is highly novel and may have implications for the spread of scrapie within infected premises. The low level circulation and accumulation of scrapie prion containing dust material within the farm environment will likely impede the efficient decontamination of such scrapie contaminated buildings unless all possible reservoirs of dust are removed. Scrapie containing dusts could possibly infect animals during feeding and drinking, and respiratory and conjunctival routes may also be involved. It has been demonstrated that scrapie can be efficiently transmitted via the nasal route in sheep [17], as is also the case for CWD in both murine models and in white tailed deer [18-20].

The sources of dust borne prions are unknown but it seems reasonable to assume that faecal, urine, skin, parturient material and saliva-derived prions may contribute to this mobile environmental reservoir of infectivity. This work highlights a possible transmission route for scrapie within the farm environment, and this is likely to be paralleled in CWD which shows strong similarities with scrapie in terms of prion dissemination and disease transmission. The data indicate that the presence of scrapie prions in dust is likely to make the control of these diseases a considerable challenge.


Amyloid-β accumulation in human growth hormone related iatrogenic CJD patients in the UK 


Dr Diane Ritchie1, Dr Peter Adlard2, Miss Helen Yull1, Miss Suzanne Lowrie1, Mrs Margaret Le Grice1, Miss Kimberley Burns1, Professor James lronside1

1University Of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom 

Aims: 78 cases of iatrogenic transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) have been reported in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1849 recipients of human growth hormone (hGH) derived from cadaveric pituitaries. Although hGH was withdrawn from use in 1985, cases of hGH-related iatrogenic CJD (hGH-iCJD) continue to occur in this cohort. As part of a comprehensive tissue-based analysis of hGH-iCJD cases we studied the clinicopathological phenotype of hGH-iCJD in the UK and questioned whether there is evidence for the seeding of other neurotoxic proteins found in the pituitary gland; (amyloid-β] Aβ, tau and a- synuclein. 

Methods: The neuropathological features and prion protein (PRNP) genotype at polymorphic codon-129 (methionine [M]/valine[V]) were determined for a subset of hGH-iCJD patients. Formalin fixed CNS tissues taken at autopsy from 33 hGH-iCJD patients were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the prion protein (PrP), Aβ, tau, and a-synuclein. Results were contrasted with comparable data from other forms of prion disease and from patients treated with hGH, but who died from causes other than CJD. 

Results: Patterns of PrP pathology in PRNP codon-129 VV and MV cases of hGH-iCJD showed similarities to sporadic CJD (sCJD) in the corresponding PRNP codon-129 genotype, with severe pathology in the cerebellum. Cases of MM hGH-iCJD showed contrasting pathological features. Our investigations also found vascular Aβ and Aβ plaque pathology in a significant proportion of hGH-iCJD and hGH-control patients, which was not observed in sCJD and variant CJD patients of a similar age. 

Conclusions: Neuropathological analysis supports the proposal that in the UK hGH patients, iCJD has resulted from hGH contaminated with the V2 human prion strain. In addition, the Aβ pathology observed in the hGH-iCJD and hGH-control patients is consistent with the hypothesis that Aβ was present in the inoculated hGH preparations and seeded into the brains of the hGH recipients. 


DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS PRION 2017 

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 14, 2017 

Amyloid-β accumulation in human growth hormone related iatrogenic CJD patients in the UK



Thursday, August 13, 2015 

Iatrogenic CJD due to pituitary-derived growth hormone with genetically determined incubation times of up to 40 years 


Friday, January 10, 2014 

vpspr, sgss, sffi, TSE, an iatrogenic by-product of gss, ffi, familial type prion disease, what it ??? 

Greetings Friends, Neighbors, and Colleagues, 


Thursday, January 14, 2016 

*** Preventable Tragedies: Superbugs and How Ineffective Monitoring of Medical Device Safety Fails Patients REPORT ***

how can it be, HOW CAN IT BE $$$ not a word about CJD GSS FFI VPSPR TSE Prions that I saw...absolutely crazy, WE ARE MISSING THE BIGGER PICTURE! 

how many victims that will never be reported ??? 


Sunday, January 17, 2016 

*** Of Grave Concern Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease *** 


Saturday, February 6, 2016 

*** Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting [Docket No. APHIS-2016-0007] Singeltary Submission *** 


Saturday, April 16, 2016 

*** APHIS [Docket No. APHIS-2016-0029] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting May 2, 2016, and June 16, 2016 Singeltary Submission *** 


Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy TSE PRION UPDATE

Saturday, July 23, 2016 

BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE TSE PRION SURVEILLANCE, TESTING, AND SRM REMOVAL UNITED STATE OF AMERICA UPDATE JULY 2016 


Tuesday, July 26, 2016 

Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE TSE Prion UPDATE JULY 2016 


Sunday, July 17, 2016 

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION GLOBAL REPORT UPDATE JULY 17 2016 


Saturday, April 23, 2016

v-CJD prion distribution in the tissues of patients at preclinical and clinical stage of the disease 


Tuesday, May 10, 2016 

2015 PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum Meeting Report 

>>> Recently transmission of prions from blood of patients with sporadic CJD to humanized mice could be demonstrated.<<< 

>>> Further-on, urine samples of a control population (normal and neurological population) showed no signal in the study; *** however, in samples from patients with sporadic CJD and vCJD, a signal was detected in both patient populations.<<< 

Meeting Report: 2015 PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum 


Thursday, April 14, 2016 

Arizona 22 year old diagnosed with Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease CJD


Self-Propagative Replication of Ab Oligomers Suggests Potential Transmissibility in Alzheimer Disease

*** Singeltary comment PLoS ***

Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ? 

Posted by flounder on 05 Nov 2014 at 21:27 GMT


Sunday, November 22, 2015 

*** Effect of heating on the stability of amyloid A (AA) fibrils and the intra- and cross-species transmission of AA amyloidosis Abstract 

Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a protein misfolding disease characterized by extracellular deposition of AA fibrils. AA fibrils are found in several tissues from food animals with AA amyloidosis. For hygienic purposes, heating is widely used to inactivate microbes in food, but it is uncertain whether heating is sufficient to inactivate AA fibrils and prevent intra- or cross-species transmission. We examined the effect of heating (at 60 °C or 100 °C) and autoclaving (at 121 °C or 135 °C) on murine and bovine AA fibrils using Western blot analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and mouse model transmission experiments. TEM revealed that a mixture of AA fibrils and amorphous aggregates appeared after heating at 100 °C, whereas autoclaving at 135 °C produced large amorphous aggregates. AA fibrils retained antigen specificity in Western blot analysis when heated at 100 °C or autoclaved at 121 °C, but not when autoclaved at 135 °C. Transmissible pathogenicity of murine and bovine AA fibrils subjected to heating (at 60 °C or 100 °C) was significantly stimulated and resulted in amyloid deposition in mice. Autoclaving of murine AA fibrils at 121 °C or 135 °C significantly decreased amyloid deposition. Moreover, amyloid deposition in mice injected with murine AA fibrils was more severe than that in mice injected with bovine AA fibrils. Bovine AA fibrils autoclaved at 121 °C or 135 °C did not induce amyloid deposition in mice. These results suggest that AA fibrils are relatively heat stable and that similar to prions, autoclaving at 135 °C is required to destroy the pathogenicity of AA fibrils. These findings may contribute to the prevention of AA fibril transmission through food materials to different animals and especially to humans. 

Purchase options Price * Issue Purchase USD 511.00 Article Purchase USD 54.00 



re-Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy 

Nature 525, 247?250 (10 September 2015) doi:10.1038/nature15369 Received 26 April 2015 Accepted 14 August 2015 Published online 09 September 2015 Updated online 11 September 2015 Erratum (October, 2015) 

snip...see full Singeltary Nature comment here; 


Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734. Vol. 285 No. 6, February 14, 2001 JAMA

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

To the Editor: In their Research Letter, Dr Gibbons and colleagues1 reported that the annual US death rate due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been stable since 1985. These estimates, however, are based only on reported cases, and do not include misdiagnosed or preclinical cases. It seems to me that misdiagnosis alone would drastically change these figures. An unknown number of persons with a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in fact may have CJD, although only a small number of these patients receive the postmortem examination necessary to make this diagnosis. Furthermore, only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies should be reportable nationwide and internationally.

Terry S. Singeltary, Sr Bacliff, Tex

1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA. 2000;284:2322-2323.


26 March 2003 

Terry S. Singeltary, retired (medically) CJD WATCH 

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc? 


Sent: Monday, January 08,2001 3:03 PM


FDA CJD BSE TSE Prion Scientific Advisors and Consultants Staff January 2001 Meeting Singeltary Submission

2001 FDA CJD TSE Prion Singeltary Submission 


2 January 2000 

British Medical Journal 

U.S. Scientist should be concerned with a CJD epidemic in the U.S., as well 


15 November 1999 

British Medical Journal 

vCJD in the USA * BSE in U.S. 


Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

SUNDAY, OCTOBER 27, 2013 

A Kiss of a Prion: New Implications for Oral Transmissibility


 PERSON TO PERSON TRANSMISSION OF THE TSE PRION DISEASE, never say never. as the disease mutates, it becomes more virulent in some cases, and cwd is efficiently transmitted from cervid to cervid. there are now multiple strains of CWD in cervids, as with the TSE prion disease in bovine, sheep and goats, and we now have the atypical TSE in these species, that have mutated, and some strains _have_ become more virulent. we now have younger humans dying from the TSE prion disease, with shorter incubation period, and that are much younger. human to human casual transmission of the TSE prion disease...again, never say never. ...TSS

A Kiss of a Prion: New Implications for Oral Transmissibility

Bianca Da Costa Dias and Stefan F. T. Weiss + Author Affiliations

School of Molecular and Cell Biology University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg South Africa Reprints or correspondence: Prof Stefan F. T. Weiss School of Molecular and Cell Biology University of the Witwatersrand Private Bag 3 2050 Wits Johannesburg South Africa (stefan.weiss@wits.ac.za). 

There is no doubt about it: prions-infectious particles composed mainly if not entirely of misfolded protein (scrapie-type prion protein [PrPSc]), which are the causative agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) such as scrapie, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-are transmissible [1–3]. These agents may be introduced via intracerebral, intravenous, intraperitoneal, or intraventricular infection, and recent research indicates that oral transmission may also occur. The last mode of transmission is of particular interest because it indicates that the consumption of meat and other products derived from animals experiencing prion disorders may pose a real risk to humans. Recent reports suggest that, in addition to meat, bodily fluids such as blood, saliva, feces, and milk may well be risk factors for possible transmission of TSEs to humans. Successful oral transmission among different animal species (interspecies) has been demonstrated. However, species specificity, the “ species barrier,” and the mode of transmission must be taken into account and may explain why cattle, sheep, goats, mink, and mice are successfully orally infected with bovine scrapie-type prion protein (bovPrPSc), whereas the ingestion of bovPrPSc by pigs, poultry, and cervids such as elk and deer fails to cause disease [1]. Humans are also thought to be susceptible to oral infection by bovPrPSc by means of contaminated bovine products (eg, meat pies), and this is believed to be the manner in which the zoonotic disease vCJD originated [4].

But where do prions hide in the body? They replicate primarily in the central nervous system, particularly in the brain and the lymphoreticular system [4], as well as in other tissues such as muscle [5]. Furthermore, the presence of these infectious agents in bodily excretions and secretions is a major cause for concern, because it enhances the risks of transmissibility. Prions have been identified in feces of asymptomatic deer [6] and in the blood, saliva, and urine of deer with chronic wasting disease [7, 8]. PrPSc has also been detected in the salivary glands of scrapie-affected sheep [9].

The report by Maddison et al [10] in this issue of theJournal describes for the first time, to our knowledge, the secretion of prions into the oral cavity of sheep. The authors used silicon dioxide (SiO2) to concentrate prions, in conjunction with serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification, or sPMCA, a method to amplify and detect the presence of very low concentrations of PrPSc. Serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification has numerous applications, such as the sensitive detection of pathological prions [11], later application for in vitro generation of prions [12], and detection of prions in body fluids such as blood from scrapie-infected hamsters [13]; the last example succeeded even in the presymptomatic phase [14]. Maddison et al [10] used this technique to demonstrate that prions are present in buccal swab samples obtained from sheep with preclinical scrapie infections.

However, one must pose the following question: how do ingested infectious PrPSc prions reach the mucus and saliva? After oral ingestion, prions are thought to be taken up first by Peyer patches before they disseminate through gut-associated lymphoid tissues, the lymphoreticular system, the vagus nerve, and the enteric nervous system, after which they enter the central nervous system [15]. Internalization of prions in the intestine is thought to be performed by M-(microfold) cells [16] and by enterocytes, which internalize bovPrPSc dependent on the prion receptor LRP/LR [17].

Maddison et al [10] suggest, according to their data, that prions are able to spread from the small intestine to the oral salivary glands and epithelia within a period of 9 months. This route explains the occurrence of prions in saliva and the shedding of prions into the oral cavity.

The transmissibility of scrapie among sheep (intraspecies) is well recognized. It must be emphasized that horizontal transfer (from one individual to another) of scrapie is the main route of infection, because vertical transmission of disease from mother to offspring via milk or placental tissue occurs infrequently. Thus, in view of the report by Maddison et al, the oral transmissibility of prions among sheep may serve as a major route for horizontal scrapie transfer. This occurrence is plausible because sheep often lick each other. Maddison et al [10] indicate that, because of the similarities in prion tissue distribution, their implications for the oral transmission of ovine scrapie might be true for other prion diseases, such as cervid chronic wasting disease and human vCJD. If this is true for humans, a kiss of a prion may sometimes have lethal consequences.

Next Section Acknowledgments We thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) grant WE 2664/2–1, Germany and the National Research Foundation (NRF), South Africa, for financial support. We thank Professor Juergen Richt, Kansas State University, United States, for a critical reading of this paper.

Potential conflicts of interest: none reported.

Financial support: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Germany (grant WE 2664/2–1) and the National Research Foundation, South Africa.


see more here ;


KURU Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopthy TSE Prion Disease 

*** Kuru Video *** 

Kuru: The Science and The Sorcery 




*** 1: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994 Jun;57(6):757-8 

Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to a chimpanzee by electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery. 

Gibbs CJ Jr, Asher DM, Kobrine A, Amyx HL, Sulima MP, Gajdusek DC. 

Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of 

Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 

Bethesda, MD 20892. 

Stereotactic multicontact electrodes used to probe the cerebral cortex of a middle aged woman with progressive dementia were previously implicated in the accidental transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) to two younger patients. The diagnoses of CJD have been confirmed for all three cases. More than two years after their last use in humans, after three cleanings and repeated sterilisation in ethanol and formaldehyde vapour, the electrodes were implanted in the cortex of a chimpanzee. Eighteen months later the animal became ill with CJD. This finding serves to re-emphasise the potential danger posed by reuse of instruments contaminated with the agents of spongiform encephalopathies, even after scrupulous attempts to clean them. 

PMID: 8006664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 


SPONTANEOUS ATYPICAL BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***

Saturday, April 23, 2016 

PRION 2016 TOKYO Saturday, April 23, 2016 

SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016 Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online Taylor & Francis Prion 2016 Animal Prion Disease Workshop 

Abstracts 

WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 

Juan Maria Torres a, Olivier Andreoletti b, J uan-Carlos Espinosa a. Vincent Beringue c. Patricia Aguilar a, Natalia Fernandez-Borges a. and Alba Marin-Moreno a "Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal ( CISA-INIA ). Valdeolmos, Madrid. Spain; b UMR INRA -ENVT 1225 Interactions Holes Agents Pathogenes. ENVT. Toulouse. France: "UR892. Virologie lmmunologie MolécuIaires, Jouy-en-Josas. France 

Dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated bovine tissues is considered as the origin of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) disease in human. To date, BSE agent is the only recognized zoonotic prion. Despite the variety of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) agents that have been circulating for centuries in farmed ruminants there is no apparent epidemiological link between exposure to ruminant products and the occurrence of other form of TSE in human like sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD). However, the zoonotic potential of the diversity of circulating TSE agents has never been systematically assessed. The major issue in experimental assessment of TSEs zoonotic potential lies in the modeling of the ‘species barrier‘, the biological phenomenon that limits TSE agents’ propagation from a species to another. In the last decade, mice genetically engineered to express normal forms of the human prion protein has proved essential in studying human prions pathogenesis and modeling the capacity of TSEs to cross the human species barrier. To assess the zoonotic potential of prions circulating in farmed ruminants, we study their transmission ability in transgenic mice expressing human PrPC (HuPrP-Tg). Two lines of mice expressing different forms of the human PrPC (129Met or 129Val) are used to determine the role of the Met129Val dimorphism in susceptibility/resistance to the different agents. These transmission experiments confirm the ability of BSE prions to propagate in 129M- HuPrP-Tg mice and demonstrate that Met129 homozygotes may be susceptible to BSE in sheep or goat to a greater degree than the BSE agent in cattle and that these agents can convey molecular properties and neuropathological indistinguishable from vCJD. However homozygous 129V mice are resistant to all tested BSE derived prions independently of the originating species suggesting a higher transmission barrier for 129V-PrP variant. Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. 

***These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.


Title: Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period) *** 

In complement to the recent demonstration that humanized mice are susceptible to scrapie, we report here the first observation of direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to a macaque after a 10-year incubation period. Neuropathologic examination revealed all of the features of a prion disease: spongiform change, neuronal loss, and accumulation of PrPres throughout the CNS. 

*** This observation strengthens the questioning of the harmlessness of scrapie to humans, at a time when protective measures for human and animal health are being dismantled and reduced as c-BSE is considered controlled and being eradicated. 

*** Our results underscore the importance of precautionary and protective measures and the necessity for long-term experimental transmission studies to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains. 


SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016 

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online 



O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations 

Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France 

Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods. 

*** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period, 

***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold long incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014), 

***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE), 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases. We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health. 

=============== 

***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases*** 

***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals. 


LOOKING FOR CWD IN HUMANS AS nvCJD or as an ATYPICAL CJD, LOOKING IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES $$$ 

*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).*** 




*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, ***

*** and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. 

*** These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies. 


SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016

Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online




why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $ 

5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis. 

snip... 

R. BRADLEY 



*** PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT ***

MONDAY, JUNE 19, 2017 

PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT P61 vCJD strain properties in a Spanish mother and son replicate as those of a young UK case


Subject: PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress

First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress
Stefanie Czub1, Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2, Christiane Stahl-Hennig3, Michael Beekes4, Hermann Schaetzl5 and Dirk Motzkus6 1 

University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency; 2Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes und Medizinische Fakultat der Universitat des Saarlandes; 3 Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen; 4 Robert-Koch-Institut Berlin; 5 University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 6 presently: Boehringer Ingelheim Veterinary Research Center; previously: Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen 

This is a progress report of a project which started in 2009. 21 cynomolgus macaques were challenged with characterized CWD material from white-tailed deer (WTD) or elk by intracerebral (ic), oral, and skin exposure routes. Additional blood transfusion experiments are supposed to assess the CWD contamination risk of human blood product. Challenge materials originated from symptomatic cervids for ic, skin scarification and partially per oral routes (WTD brain). Challenge material for feeding of muscle derived from preclinical WTD and from preclinical macaques for blood transfusion experiments. We have confirmed that the CWD challenge material contained at least two different CWD agents (brain material) as well as CWD prions in muscle-associated nerves. 

Here we present first data on a group of animals either challenged ic with steel wires or per orally and sacrificed with incubation times ranging from 4.5 to 6.9 years at postmortem. Three animals displayed signs of mild clinical disease, including anxiety, apathy, ataxia and/or tremor. In four animals wasting was observed, two of those had confirmed diabetes. All animals have variable signs of prion neuropathology in spinal cords and brains and by supersensitive IHC, reaction was detected in spinal cord segments of all animals. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuiC) and PET-blot assays to further substantiate these findings are on the way, as well as bioassays in bank voles and transgenic mice. 

At present, a total of 10 animals are sacrificed and read-outs are ongoing. Preclinical incubation of the remaining macaques covers a range from 6.4 to 7.10 years. Based on the species barrier and an incubation time of > 5 years for BSE in macaques and about 10 years for scrapie in macaques, we expected an onset of clinical disease beyond 6 years post inoculation. 

PRION 2017 DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS


TUESDAY, JUNE 13, 2017

PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress











Subject: CWD TRANSMITS TO MACAQUE ORALLY MUSCLE INTAKE

Notice to Members Regarding Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)

Posted on: May 31st, 2017 

To: MNA Members From: Métis Nation of Alberta 

Date: Wednesday, May 31, 2017 

Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA) was made aware of a recent Canadian research study examining the transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease. The initial results of the study indicate that macaque monkeys (genetically similar to humans) can be infected with Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) after eating deer that is infected with CWD. CWD is a prion disease, which are fatal, transmissible diseases characterized by abnormal proteins in the brain and nervous system. To date no research has shown that CWD can be passed on to humans, and no human cases of CWD have ever been identified. However, this new research indicates that it is a possibility. The Deputy Chief Medical Officer of Health has reached out to us to share with our Métis harvesters this important information. For more information you can visit:


Chronic Wasting Disease: CFIA Research Summary 

 Embargoed until May 23, 2017 

(OCR of a scanned original) 

Research Findings 

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a progressive, fatal disease of the nervous system of cervids including deer, elk, moose, and reindeer that is caused by abnormal proteins called prions. It is known as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Other TSEs include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans.

A limited number of experimental studies have demonstrated that non-human primates, specifically squirrel monkeys, are susceptible to CWD prions. An ongoing research study has now shown that CWD can also be transmitted to macaques, which are genetically closer to humans. 

The study led by Dr. Stefanie Czub, a scientist at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and funded by the Alberta Prion Research institute has demonstrated that by orally administering material under experimental conditions from cervids (deer and elk) naturally infected with CWD, the disease can be transmitted to macaques. 

in this project, which began in 2009, 18 macaques were exposed to CWD in a variety of ways: by injecting into the brain, through contact with skin, oral administration, and intravenously (into the bloodstream through veins). So far, results are available from 5 animals. At this point, two animals that were exposed to CWD by direct introduction into the brain, one that was administered infected brain material by oral administration and two that were given infected muscle by oral administration have become infected with CWD. The study is ongoing and testing continues in the remaining animals. The early results will be presented at PRlON 2017, the annual international conference on prion diseases, in Edinburgh, Scotland, May 23 to 26, 2017. 

Potential impacts of the new finding

Since 2003 Canada has a policy that recommends that animals and materials known to be infected with prions be removed from the food chain and from health products. Although no direct evidence of CWD prion transmission to humans has ever been recorded, the policy advocates a precautionary approach to managing CWD and potential human exposure to prions. These initial findings do not change Health Canada’s Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) position on food and health products. A precautionary approach is still recommended to manage the potential risks of exposure to prions through food and health products. Measures are in place at federal, provincial and territorial levels to reduce human exposure to products potentially contaminated by CWD by preventing known infected animals from entering the marketplace. 

While Federal and P/T government’s animal disease control policies continue to divert known CWD-infected animals away from entering the food and feed supply, research and development of sensitive detection methods including live-animal sampling techniques remain crucial for ensuring an accurate diagnosis. In addition, consistent federal, provincial and territorial communications of appropriate precautionary measures for hunters and indigenous communities are required. 

Next Steps

The CFlA will continue to collaborate with national and international partners to develop and validate new diagnostic techniques. The CFlA will also continue to offer confirmatory testing services and reference laboratory expertise to provincial and territorial partners on demand. 

Currently, CFlA laboratories are leading or collaborating on several research projects to understand the potential for CWD to infect humans. These projects use non‐human primates, genetically modified mice, and cell-free amplification approaches. Given the present findings, CFiA encourages continued research into TSEs. 

The results of this study reinforce the need to redesign the federal program to foster greater adoption of risk mitigation measures for farmed cervids. Federal and provincial government collaboration will continue as new program options are assessed. 

The results of Dr. Czub’s research into CWD will be of interest to scientists, governments, industry and people who consume cervid products. After the presentation at PRION 2017, the research will follow the normal steps of completion, peer review and publication. The Government of Canada will monitor the response to this research and determine whether further review of the science is required. Other studies underway by other researchers may also become public as a result of the presentation of Dr. Czub’s research. 

The Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, CFlA and other Federal partners are working together to assess what policies or programs need further review as well as preparing other communications about the research and health policy and advice to Canadian. 2017/04/28 

===end...UNOFFICIAL...NO URL LINK...TSS===

0:30 First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress 

Dr Stefanie Czub University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency Canada 


WEDNESDAY, MAY 03, 2017

*** First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques



seems if my primitive education does not fail me, intracranial means inside the skull, and peroral means by the mouth. seems the price of tse prion poker just keeps going up...terry


Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES

Location: Virus and Prion Research

Title: Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease

Author item Moore, Sarah item Kunkle, Robert item Kondru, Naveen item Manne, Sireesha item Smith, Jodi item Kanthasamy, Anumantha item West Greenlee, M item Greenlee, Justin

Submitted to: Prion Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2017 Publication Date: N/A Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Aims: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a naturally-occurring, fatal neurodegenerative disease of cervids. We previously demonstrated that disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) can be detected in the brain and retina from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent. In that study, neurological signs consistent with prion disease were observed only in one pig: an intracranially challenged pig that was euthanized at 64 months post-challenge. The purpose of this study was to use an antigen-capture immunoassay (EIA) and real-time quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) to determine whether PrPSc is present in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the CWD agent.

Methods: At two months of age, crossbred pigs were challenged by the intracranial route (n=20), oral route (n=19), or were left unchallenged (n=9). At approximately 6 months of age, the time at which commercial pigs reach market weight, half of the pigs in each group were culled (<6 challenge="" groups="" month="" pigs="" remaining="" the="">6 month challenge groups) were allowed to incubate for up to 73 months post challenge (mpc). The retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) was screened for the presence of PrPSc by EIA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The RPLN, palatine tonsil, and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) from 6-7 pigs per challenge group were also tested using EIA and QuIC.

Results: PrPSc was not detected by EIA and IHC in any RPLNs. All tonsils and MLNs were negative by IHC, though the MLN from one pig in the oral <6 5="" 6="" at="" by="" detected="" eia.="" examined="" group="" in="" intracranial="" least="" lymphoid="" month="" months="" of="" one="" pigs="" positive="" prpsc="" quic="" the="" tissues="" was="">6 months group, 5/6 pigs in the oral <6 4="" and="" group="" months="" oral="">6 months group. Overall, the MLN was positive in 14/19 (74%) of samples examined, the RPLN in 8/18 (44%), and the tonsil in 10/25 (40%). Conclusions:

This study demonstrates that PrPSc accumulates in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent, and can be detected as early as 4 months after challenge.

CWD-infected pigs rarely develop clinical disease and if they do, they do so after a long incubation period. This raises the possibility that CWD-infected pigs could shed prions into their environment long before they develop clinical disease.

Furthermore, lymphoid tissues from CWD-infected pigs could present a potential source of CWD infectivity in the animal and human food chains.


CONFIDENTIAL

EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

While this clearly is a cause for concern we should not jump to the conclusion that this means that pigs will necessarily be infected by bone and meat meal fed by the oral route as is the case with cattle. ...


 we cannot rule out the possibility that unrecognised subclinical spongiform encephalopathy could be present in British pigs though there is no evidence for this: only with parenteral/implantable pharmaceuticals/devices is the theoretical risk to humans of sufficient concern to consider any action.


 Our records show that while some use is made of porcine materials in medicinal products, the only products which would appear to be in a hypothetically ''higher risk'' area are the adrenocorticotrophic hormone for which the source material comes from outside the United Kingdom, namely America China Sweden France and Germany. The products are manufactured by Ferring and Armour. A further product, ''Zenoderm Corium implant'' manufactured by Ethicon, makes use of porcine skin - which is not considered to be a ''high risk'' tissue, but one of its uses is described in the data sheet as ''in dural replacement''. This product is sourced from the United Kingdom.....


 snip...see much more here ;

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 05, 2017

Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease


TUESDAY, APRIL 18, 2017 

*** EXTREME USA FDA PART 589 TSE PRION FEED LOOP HOLE STILL EXIST, AND PRICE OF POKER GOES UP ***


Wednesday, May 24, 2017 

PRION2017 CONFERENCE VIDEO UPDATE 23 – 26 May 2017 Edinburgh UPDATE 1 

Subject: PRION2017 CONFERENCE VIDEO UPDATE 23 – 26 May 2017 Edinburgh

*see archives of previous Prion Conferences, the ones that are still available, scroll down towards bottom in this link.


MONDAY, JUNE 19, 2017 

PRION 2017 P20 Descriptive epidemiology of human prion diseases in Japan: a prospective 16-year surveillance study

Japan Prion Disease Increasing Annually to 2.3 patients per 1 million populations in 2014

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2017/06/prion-2017-p20-descriptive-epidemiology.html

FRIDAY, JUNE 16, 2017

PRION 2017 P55 Susceptibility of human prion protein to in vitro conversion by chronic wasting disease prions


FRIDAY, JUNE 16, 2017

P55 Susceptibility of human prion protein to in vitro conversion by chronic wasting disease prions


TUESDAY, JUNE 13, 2017

PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT Chronic Wasting Disease in European moose is associated with PrPSc features different from North American CWD


TUESDAY, JUNE 13, 2017

PRION 2017 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT Chronic Wasting Disease in European moose is associated with PrPSc features different from North American CWD


Saturday, June 17, 2017

PRION 2017 P115 α- Synuclein prions from MSA patients exhibit similar transmission properties as PrPSc prions


SATURDAY, JUNE 10, 2017

Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion to Humans, who makes that final call, when, or, has it already happened?


FRIDAY, JUNE 02, 2017

Alberta Canada Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Surveillance Update: 2016/17 Final


MONDAY, MAY 29, 2017 

Canada CCA optimistic over potential for revisions to OIE criteria for BSE negligible risk


WEDNESDAY, MAY 31, 2017

Texas New Exotic CWD Susceptible Species Rules Now in Effect


WEDNESDAY, MAY 17, 2017

CWD, TSE, PRION, Cattle, Pigs, Sheep, and Humans aka Mad Cow Disease


*** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).***
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.4161/pri.28124?src=recsys

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.4161/pri.28124?needAccess=true

The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04).

There is some evidence that risk of CJD INCREASES WITH INCREASING FREQUENCY OF LAMB EATING (p = 0.02).

The evidence for such an association between beef eating and CJD is weaker (p = 0.14). When only controls for whom a relative was interviewed are included, this evidence becomes a little STRONGER (p = 0.08).

snip...

It was found that when veal was included in the model with another exposure, the association between veal and CJD remained statistically significant (p = < 0.05 for all exposures), while the other exposures ceased to be statistically significant (p = > 0.05).

snip...

In conclusion, an analysis of dietary histories revealed statistical associations between various meats/animal products and INCREASED RISK OF CJD. When some account was taken of possible confounding, the association between VEAL EATING AND RISK OF CJD EMERGED AS THE STRONGEST OF THESE ASSOCIATIONS STATISTICALLY. ...

snip...

In the study in the USA, a range of foodstuffs were associated with an increased risk of CJD, including liver consumption which was associated with an apparent SIX-FOLD INCREASE IN THE RISK OF CJD. By comparing the data from 3 studies in relation to this particular dietary factor, the risk of liver consumption became non-significant with an odds ratio of 1.2 (PERSONAL COMMUNICATION, PROFESSOR A. HOFMAN. ERASMUS UNIVERSITY, ROTTERDAM). (???...TSS)

snip...see full report ;

http://collections.europarchive.org...einquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1994/08/00004001.pdf

you can see more evidence here ;

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2016/05/zoonotic-potential-of-cwd-prions-update.html

really, i would not care what anyone eats. if you want to eat cwd infected deer elk or any cervid, that would be your risk to take, should not bother me. BUT, when it starts to risk my family, my children, friends, that have some sort of medical procedure done, surgery, dental, tissue, blood, etc. then that exposure of cwd to humans by consumption goes on to risk other humans that may never have eaten cervid. now is the time to act folks, we have floundered and pass this down the line long enough now it's catching up, and it may be too late. the incubation period here is what is fooling everyone. same thing happened with scrapie, until now, we know scrapie is risk to humans, this is scientific facts, ignore them if you must, but know this, you are playing with fire folks...don't take my word on it. read the science, and then make you minds up if your gonna risk your loved ones with this. it's like playing russian roulette... 

Research Article

Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to a chimpanzee by electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery.


  1. C J Gibbs, Jr,
  2. D M Asher,
  3. A Kobrine,
  4. H L Amyx,
  5. M P Sulima,
  6. D C Gajdusek
Author affiliations

Abstract
Stereotactic multicontact electrodes used to probe the cerebral cortex of a middle aged woman with progressive dementia were previously implicated in the accidental transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) to two younger patients. The diagnoses of CJD have been confirmed for all three cases. More than two years after their last use in humans, after three cleanings and repeated sterilisation in ethanol and formaldehyde vapour, the electrodes were implanted in the cortex of a chimpanzee. Eighteen months later the animal became ill with CJD. This finding serves to re-emphasise the potential danger posed by reuse of instruments contaminated with the agents of spongiform encephalopathies, even after scrupulous attempts to clean them.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.57.6.757

0:30 First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress 

Dr Stefanie Czub University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency Canada 

http://prion2017.org/programme/

''in this project, which began in 2009, 18 macaques were exposed to CWD in a variety of ways: 

by injecting into the brain, through contact with skin, oral administration, and intravenously (into the bloodstream through veins). 

So far, results are available from 5 animals. 

At this point, two animals that were exposed to CWD by direct introduction into the brain, 

one that was administered infected brain material by oral administration and 

two that were given infected muscle by oral administration have become infected with CWD. 

The study is ongoing and testing continues in the remaining animals. The early results will be presented at PRlON 2017, the annual international conference on prion diseases, in Edinburgh, Scotland, May 23 to 26, 2017.'' 

end...tss


CJD9/10022


October 1994

Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane 

BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ

Dear Mr Elmhirst,

CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT

Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.

The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.

The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.

The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.

I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.

http://web.archive.org/web/20030511010117/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1994/10/00003001.pdf

2009

7 Section Contents Menu 

Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts

8 Archive for Recalls, Market Withdrawals & Safety Alerts

9 2009

10 Recall -- Firm Press Release . 

Exotic Meats USA Announces Urgent Statewide Recall of Elk Tenderloin Because It May Contain Meat Derived From An Elk Confirmed To Have Chronic Wasting Disease Contact: Exotic Meats USA 1-800-680-4375 

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE -- February 9, 2009 -- Exotic Meats USA of San Antonio, TX is initiating a voluntary recall of Elk Tenderloin because it may contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD). The meat with production dates of December 29, 30 and 31, 2008 was purchased from Sierra Meat Company in Reno, NV. 

The infected elk came from Elk Farm LLC in Pine Island, MN and was among animals slaughtered and processed at USDA facility Noah’s Ark Processors LLC. Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a fatal brain and nervous system disease found in elk and deer. 

The disease is caused by an abnormally shaped protein called a prion, which can damage the brain and nerves of animals in the deer family. 

Currently, it is believed that the prion responsible for causing CWD in deer and elk is not capable of infecting humans who eat deer or elk contaminated with the prion, but the observation of animal-to-human transmission of other prion-mediated diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), has raised a theoretical concern regarding the transmission of CWD from deer or elk to humans. 

At the present time, FDA believes the risk of becoming ill from eating CWD-positive elk or deer meat is remote. 

However, FDA strongly advises consumers to return the product to the place of purchase, rather than disposing of it themselves, due to environmental concerns. 


Thursday, May 26, 2011 

Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 

FoodNet Population Survey Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011. 



MONDAY, JUNE 19, 2017 

*** Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee June 2017 CJD, BSE, Scrapie, CWD, TSE, Prion? ***

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2017/06/transmissible-spongiform.html


MONDAY, JUNE 19, 2017 

FDA DOES NOT have mandatory established specifications for animal-derived ingredients to ensure they are BSE free in Nutritional Supplements





Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

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