Saturday, November 16, 2013

Management of neurosurgical instruments and patients exposed to creutzfeldt-jakob disease 2013 December

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol.

2013 Dec;34(12):1272-80. doi: 10.1086/673986. Epub 2013 Oct 24.


Management of neurosurgical instruments and patients exposed to creutzfeldt-jakob disease.


Belay ED, Blase J, M Sehulster L, A Maddox R, B Schonberger L. Source Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

 

 Abstract

 

Objective. To summarize the approaches used to manage exposure of patients to inadequately sterilized neurosurgical instruments contaminated as a result of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).

 

 Methods. Information on past CJD exposure incidents reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was aggregated and summarized. In addition, inactivation studies were reviewed, and data from selected publications were provided for reference.

 

 Results. Nineteen incidents of patient exposure to potentially CJD-contaminated instruments were reported to the CDC, including 17 that involved intracranial procedures and 2 that involved ophthalmologic procedures. In more than 50% of incidents, the neurosurgical procedures were performed for diagnostic work up of the index patients. At least 12 of the hospitals had multiple neurosurgical sets, and the CJD-contaminated instruments could not be identified in 11 of 19 hospitals. In 12 of 15 hospitals with neurosurgical incidents, a decision was made to notify patients of their potential exposure.

 

 Conclusions. Neurosurgical instruments used for treatment of patients with suspected or diagnosed CJD or patients whose diagnosis is unclear should be promptly identified and sterilized using recommended CJD decontamination protocols. Inability to trace instruments complicates appropriate management of exposure incidents. The feasibility of instituting instrument tracking procedures should be considered.

 






Sent: Tuesday, November 19, 2013 10:04 AM
 
Subject: Re: [BSE-L] Management of neurosurgical instruments and patients exposed to creutzfeldt-jakob disease 2013 Dec

 

Greetings,
 
 
I sure would like to have been able to make a comment on this article.
 
 
> In 12 of 15 hospitals with neurosurgical incidents, a decision was made to notify patients of their potential exposure.
 
 
 
so let’s ponder this shall we.
 
 
SO, X number of patients, from 3 hospitals, where 
 
''exposure to potentially CJD-contaminated instruments ''
 
took place on these patients, the final decision not to tell those folks about the potential exposure to the CJD TSE prion
 
''In 12 of 15 hospitals with neurosurgical incidents, a decision was made to notify patients of their potential exposure.''
 
was based on what $
 
thus, that fool hearted decision, only to avoid any potential litigation from any potential negligence from these 3 hospitals, by making the decision not to tell X number of patients that they had been exposed (potentially;-(likely) to the CJD TSE prion agent, will only (potentially) help spread the CJD TSE prion agent further through these hospitals, and on down the road for decades to come, not only in these 3 hospitals, but any county, state, country, that any patient that had been one of these victims of ‘potential’ iatrogenic negligence, came from, and then _went back too_, via any surgical/dental/blood/tissue medical work on said victims of said potential negligence from these 3 hospitals out of the 15 neurosurgical hospitals.
 
there should be a law where these hospital incidents of exposure to the TSE prion disease (or any other disease), especially due to the nature of this pathogen TSE prion, should be made mandatory to report, not only to officials, but to victims exposed as well.
 
that's why for almost 16 years I been screaming for mandatory CJD TSE prion reporting, in every state and internationally, with a mandatory CJD TSE prion disease questionnaire, asking real questions pertaining to route and source of the CJD TSE prion agent, due to the iatrogenic ramifications for decades to come i.e. the pass it forward mode of the CJD TSE prion aka mad cow type disease. this is a perfect example (these 3 negligent hospitals), of why iatrogenic CJD TSE prion disease, will stay sporadic CJD. all iatrogenic CJD is, is sporadic CJD, until the iatrogenic event that took place is confirmed, documented, route and source of the iatrogenic event is documented and confirmed, and put in academic literature, and then, really, it should also be put in the public domain, so the public can help stop the spreading of the CJD TSE prion, because the public works in the medical field, where iatrogenic CJD TSE prion events take place. ...
 
 
Thursday, May 17, 2012

Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Final Assessment

Volume 18, Number 6—June 2012
http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2012/05/iatrogenic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.html
 
 
sadly, iatrogenic CJD TSE prion disease is not, and never has been, so _final_, after all. again, I cannot stress with assessing the TSE prion, never say never. ...
 
 
just my take. ...
 
 
kind regards,
terry
 
 
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518
 
 

 

1: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994 Jun;57(6):757-8

 

Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to a chimpanzee by electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery.

 

Gibbs CJ Jr, Asher DM, Kobrine A, Amyx HL, Sulima MP, Gajdusek DC.

 

Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of

 

Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health,

 

Bethesda, MD 20892.

 

Stereotactic multicontact electrodes used to probe the cerebral cortex of a middle aged woman with progressive dementia were previously implicated in the accidental transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) to two younger patients. The diagnoses of CJD have been confirmed for all three cases. More than two years after their last use in humans, after three cleanings and repeated sterilisation in ethanol and formaldehyde vapour, the electrodes were implanted in the cortex of a chimpanzee. Eighteen months later the animal became ill with CJD. This finding serves to re-emphasise the potential danger posed by reuse of instruments contaminated with the agents of spongiform encephalopathies, even after scrupulous attempts to clean them.

 

PMID: 8006664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

New studies on the heat resistance of hamster-adapted scrapie agent: Threshold survival after ashing at 600°C suggests an inorganic template of replication

 

The infectious agents responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) are notoriously resistant to most physical and chemical methods used for inactivating pathogens, including heat. It has long been recognized, for example, that boiling is ineffective and that higher temperatures are most efficient when combined with steam under pressure (i.e., autoclaving). As a means of decontamination, dry heat is used only at the extremely high temperatures achieved during incineration, usually in excess of 600°C. It has been assumed, without proof, that incineration totally inactivates the agents of TSE, whether of human or animal origin.

 


 

Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production

 

Histochemical analysis of hamster brains inoculated with the solid residue showed typical spongiform degeneration and vacuolation. Re-inoculation of these brains into a new cohort of hamsters led to onset of clinical scrapie symptoms within 75 days, suggesting that the specific infectivity of the prion protein was not changed during the biodiesel process. The biodiesel reaction cannot be considered a viable prion decontamination method for MBM, although we observed increased survival time of hamsters and reduced infectivity greater than 6 log orders in the solid MBM residue. Furthermore, results from our study compare for the first time prion detection by Western Blot versus an infectivity bioassay for analysis of biodiesel reaction products. We could show that biochemical analysis alone is insufficient for detection of prion infectivity after a biodiesel process.

 


 

Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area

 

The data presented here demonstrate that sPMCA can detect low levels of PrPCWD in the environment, corroborate previous biological and experimental data suggesting long term persistence of prions in the environment2,3 and imply that PrPCWD accumulation over time may contribute to transmission of CWD in areas where it has been endemic for decades. This work demonstrates the utility of sPMCA to evaluate other environmental water sources for PrPCWD, including smaller bodies of water such as vernal pools and wallows, where large numbers of cervids congregate and into which prions from infected animals may be shed and concentrated to infectious levels.

 


 

A Quantitative Assessment of the Amount of Prion Diverted to Category 1 Materials and Wastewater During Processing

 

Keywords:Abattoir;bovine spongiform encephalopathy;QRA;scrapie;TSE

 

In this article the development and parameterization of a quantitative assessment is described that estimates the amount of TSE infectivity that is present in a whole animal carcass (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE] for cattle and classical/atypical scrapie for sheep and lambs) and the amounts that subsequently fall to the floor during processing at facilities that handle specified risk material (SRM). BSE in cattle was found to contain the most oral doses, with a mean of 9864 BO ID50s (310, 38840) in a whole carcass compared to a mean of 1851 OO ID50s (600, 4070) and 614 OO ID50s (155, 1509) for a sheep infected with classical and atypical scrapie, respectively. Lambs contained the least infectivity with a mean of 251 OO ID50s (83, 548) for classical scrapie and 1 OO ID50s (0.2, 2) for atypical scrapie. The highest amounts of infectivity falling to the floor and entering the drains from slaughtering a whole carcass at SRM facilities were found to be from cattle infected with BSE at rendering and large incineration facilities with 7.4 BO ID50s (0.1, 29), intermediate plants and small incinerators with a mean of 4.5 BO ID50s (0.1, 18), and collection centers, 3.6 BO ID50s (0.1, 14). The lowest amounts entering drains are from lambs infected with classical and atypical scrapie at intermediate plants and atypical scrapie at collection centers with a mean of 3 × 10−7 OO ID50s (2 × 10−8, 1 × 10−6) per carcass. The results of this model provide key inputs for the model in the companion paper published here.

 


 

Wednesday, July 10, 2013

 

Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals

 

BMC Veterinary Research 2013, 9:134 doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-134

 


 

PPo4-4:

 

Survival and Limited Spread of TSE Infectivity after Burial

 

Karen Fernie, Allister Smith and Robert A. Somerville The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS; University of Edinburgh; Roslin, Scotland UK

 

Scrapie and chronic wasting disease probably spread via environmental routes, and there are also concerns about BSE infection remaining in the environment after carcass burial or waste 3disposal. In two demonstration experiments we are determining survival and migration of TSE infectivity when buried for up to five years, as an uncontained point source or within bovine heads. Firstly boluses of TSE infected mouse brain were buried in lysimeters containing either sandy or clay soil. Migration from the boluses is being assessed from soil cores taken over time. With the exception of a very small amount of infectivity found 25 cm from the bolus in sandy soil after 12 months, no other infectivity has been detected up to three years. Secondly, ten bovine heads were spiked with TSE infected mouse brain and buried in the two soil types. Pairs of heads have been exhumed annually and assessed for infectivity within and around them. After one year and after two years, infectivity was detected in most intracranial samples and in some of the soil samples taken from immediately surrounding the heads. The infectivity assays for the samples in and around the heads exhumed at years three and four are underway. These data show that TSE infectivity can survive burial for long periods but migrates slowly. Risk assessments should take into account the likely long survival rate when infected material has been buried.

 

The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from DEFRA.

 


 

 *** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.

 


 

 

Prion2013 Chronic Wasting Disease CWD risk factors, humans, domestic cats, blood, and mother to offspring transmission

 

 HD.13: CWD infection in the spleen of humanized transgenic mice

 

Liuting Qing and Qingzhong Kong

 

Case Western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA

 

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread prion disease in free-ranging and captive cervid species in North America, and there is evidence suggesting the existence of multiple CWD strains. The susceptibility of human CNS and peripheral organs to the various CWD prion strains remains largely unclear. Current literature suggests that the classical CWD strain is unlikely to infect human brain, but the potential for peripheral infection by CWD in humans is unknown. We detected protease-resistant PrpSc in the spleens of a few humanized transgenic mice that were intracerebrally inoculated with natural CWD isolates, but PrpSc was not detected in the brains of any of the CWD-inoculated mice. Our ongoing bioassays in humanized Tg mice indicate that intracerebral challenge with such PrpSc-positive humanized mouse spleen already led to prion disease in most animals. These results indicate that the CWD prion may have the potential to infect human peripheral lymphoid tissues.

 

=====

 

HD.12: Comparative study of the distribution of the prion protein in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) following experimental challenge with variant and sporadic CJD

 

Diane L. Ritchie,1 Paul Brown,2 Susan Gibson,3 Thomas R. Kreil,4 Christian Abee3 and James W. Ironside1

 

1National CJD Surveillance Unit; Edinburgh, UK; 2Bethesda; Bethesda, MD USA; 3Deparment of Comparative Medicine; University of South Alabama; Mobile, AL USA; 4Baxter Bioscience; Vienna, Austria

 

Introduction, Reports suggest that the number of tissues and organs showing the presence of the abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) in variant CJD (vCJD) patients may be greater than previously thought. A limited peripheral involvement in some cases of sporadic CJD (sCJD) has also been reported. This accumulation of PrPTSE outside the brain has raised concerns about the possible iatrogenic transmission risk of vCJD. The squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) has been shown to be highly susceptible to experimental challenge with human prion disease. Neuropathological and biochemical analyses of CNS tissue have shown that sCJD and vCJD can be distinguished in the squirrel monkey and that many of the strain characteristics that define these agents are conserved after transmission. Following on from these initial studies, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were performed on a wide range of peripheral tissues including, lymphoreticular tissues and peripheral neural tissue to establish the full-body distribution of PrPTSE in this primate animal model.

 

Materials and Methods. Brain homogenates from sCJD or vCJD patients were inoculated into the frontal cortex of squirrel monkeys. Animals were kept under constant clinical surveillance. At post-mortem, formalin fixed CNS tissue and a wide range of peripheral tissues were taken for immunohistochemical analysis together with frozen tissues taken for the biochemical detection of PrPTSE.

 

Results. Immunohistochemical analysis showed no evidence of PrPTSE deposition in peripheral tissues in either variant or sporadic CJD-infected animals. However, western blot assays detected PrPTSE in the spleen of a proportion of the vCJD- infected animals. The PrPTSE isotype resembled that detected in CNS tissue from the vCJD- infected animals and from human vCJD cases. ***In addition, western blot analysis detected PrPTSE in the spleen of a single animal following challenge with sporadic CJD. The PrPTSE type in this animal resembled that found in CNS tissue from the same animal, with a PrPTSE type similar to that found in human sCJD type 1 cases.

 

Conclusion. This study confirms the accumulation of PrPTSE in the CNS and spleen of a proportion of squirrel monkeys infected intra-cerebrally with human vCJD. Furthermore, this study extends the evidence that there may be a peripheral involvement in some cases of sCJD. PrPTSE typing confirms the conservation of PrPTSE type on transmission to the squirrel monkey and suggests that there are no tissue-specific adaptations in the biochemical phenotype of the agent strain following primate-to-primate transmission.

 

=====

 

Oral.15: Molecular barriers to zoonotic prion transmission: Comparison of the ability of sheep, cattle and deer prion disease isolates to convert normal human prion protein to its pathological isoform in a cell-free system

 

Marcelo A.Barria,1 Aru Balachandran,2 Masanori Morita,3 Tetsuyuki Kitamoto,4 Rona Barron,5 Jean Manson,5 Richard Kniqht,1 James W. lronside1 and Mark W. Head1

 

1National CJD Research and Surveillance Unit; Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences; School of Clinical Sciences; The University of Edinburgh; Edinburgh, UK; 2National and OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD; Canadian Food Inspection Agency; Ottawa Laboratory; Fallowfield. ON Canada; 3Infectious Pathogen Research Section; Central Research Laboratory; Japan Blood Products Organization; Kobe, Japan; 4Department of Neurological Science; Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine; Sendai. Japan; 5Neurobiology Division; The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS; University of Edinburgh; Easter Bush; Midlothian; Edinburgh, UK

 

Background. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a known zoonotic prion disease, resulting in variant Creurzfeldt- Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. In contrast, classical scrapie in sheep is thought to offer little or no danger to human health. However, a widening range of prion diseases have been recognized in cattle, sheep and deer. The risks posed by individual animal prion diseases to human health cannot be determined a priori and are difficult to assess empirically. The fundamemal event in prion disease pathogenesis is thought to be the seeded conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) to its pathological isoform (PrPSc). Here we report the use of a rapid molecular conversion assay to test whether brain specimens from different animal prion diseases are capable of seeding the conversion of human PrPC ro PrPSc.

 

Material and Methods. Classical BSE (C-type BSE), H-type BSE, L-type BSE, classical scrapie, atypical scrapie, chronic wasting disease and vCJD brain homogenates were tested for their ability to seed conversion of human PrPC to PrPSc in protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) reactions. Newly formed human PrPSc was detected by protease digestion and western blotting using the antibody 3F4.

 

Results. C-type BSE and vCJD were found to efficiently convert PrPC to PrPSc. Scrapie failed to convert human PrPC to PrPSc. Of the other animal prion diseases tested only chronic wasting disease appeared to have the capability ro convert human PrPC to PrPSc. The results were consistent whether the human PrPC came from human brain, humanised transgenic mouse brain or from cultured human cells and the effect was more pronounced for PrPC with methionine at codon 129 compared with that with valine.

 

Conclusion. Our results show that none of the tested animal prion disease isolates are as efficient as C-type BSE and vCJD in converting human prion protein in this in vitro assay. However, they also show that there is no absolute barrier ro conversion of human prion protein in the case of chronic wasting disease.

 

=====

 

Invited.16: Studies of chronic wasting disease transmission in cervid and non-cervid species

 

Edward A, Hoover,1 Candace K. Mathiason,1 Davin M. Henderson,1 Nicholas J. Haley,1 Davis M. Seelig,1 Nathaniel D. Denkers,1 Amy V. Nalls,1 Mark D. Zabe,1 Glenn C. Telling,1 Fernando Goni2 and Thomas Wisniewski,2

 

1Prion Research Center; Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA; 2New York University School of Medicine; New York, NY USA

 

How and why some misfolded proteins become horizontally transmitted agents and occasionally cross species barriers are issues fundamental to understanding prion disease. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is perhaps a prototype of horizontal prion transmission, encompassing efficient mucosal uptake, lymphoid amplification, neuroinvasion, peripheralization, and dissemination via mucosal excretion. Efficient mucosal transmission of CWD in deer has been demonstrated by oral, nasal, aerosol, and indirect contact exposure. In addition, other studies (Mathiason CK, et al.) reported at the symposium support a significant role for pre- and/or postnatal transmission of CWD from doe to offspring. Accumulating, yet still incomplete, evidence also suggests that the period of relatively covert CWD infection may be longer than originally thought. Given the above, minimally invasive sensitive assays based on body fluids from live animals would aid substantially in understanding the biology of CWD. We have been applying seeded realtirne quaking-induced amplification of recombinant PrP substrates (i.e., RT-QuIC methodology) to: (1) investigate antemortem CWD detection, and (2) model PrP-based species barriers and trans-species adaptation-topics we previously explored using sPMCA and in vivo bioassays. At this symposium, we report sensitive and specific detection CWD prions in saliva, urine, blood (Mathiason lab), and rectal and pharyngeal lymph node samples (Haley NJ, et al.) from pre-symptomatic and symptomatic experimentally and naturally exposed deer. Other ongoing studies are employing RT-QuIC methodology to model amplification barriers among CWD, FSE, BSE, and CJD prions using cervine, feline, bovine, human, and promiscuous rPrP substrates and the above species prion seeds, cellular co-factors, and transgenic mice. Finally, in collaboration with the Wisniewski laboratory, we are conducting of experimental CWD vaccination studies in deer employing oral administration of an attenuated Salmonella vector expressing cervid PrP epitopes.

 

=====

 

AD.06: Detecting prions in the brain and blood of TSE-infected deer and hamsters

 

Alan Elder,1 Davin Henderson,1 Anca Selariu,1 Amy Nalls,1 Byron Caughey,2 Richard Bessen,1 Jason Bartz3 and Candace Mathiason1

 

1Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA; 2NIH Rocky Mountain Laboratories; Hamilton, MT USA; 3Creighton University; Omaha, NE USA

 

While large quantities of protease resistant prion protein (PrPres) can be demonstrated by western blot or IHC in lymphoid biopsies or post-mortem brain tissues harvested from prion-infected animals, these conventional assays are less reliable as means to detect the small quantities of prions thought to be present in bodily fluids or associated with early and asymptomatic phases of TSE disease. The Real Time-Quaking Induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) assay is capable of detecting prions at concentrations below the level of sensitivity of conventional assays and provides a real-time fluorescent readout negating the use of proteases. We have made modifications to the RT-QuIC assay to utilize it for the detection of PrPres in brain and blood harvested from various species infected with prions. In this study, we analyzed CWD-infected deer and CWD/TME-infected hamster whole blood to determine the effect of:

 

(1) various anticoagulants,

 

(2) freezing and

 

(3) NaPTA precipitation.

 

Brain tissue and blood collected from naive deer and hamsters served as negative controls.

 

We were able to demonstrate amplifiable prions in

 

(1) brain and blood samples harvested from CWD/TME-infected animals,

 

(2) heparinized blood,

 

(3) frozen vs. fresh blood and

 

(4) NaPTA treated samples.

 

The RT-QuIC assay is able to detect PrPres in various species of animals and shows promise as an antemortem diagnostic tool for blood-borne TSEs.

 

=====

 

Oral.08: Mother to offspring transmission of chronic wasting disease in Reeve's Muntjac deer

 

Amy Nalls,1 Erin McNulty,1 Jenny Powers,2 Davis Seelig,1 Clare Hoover,1 Nicholas Haley,1 Jeanette Hayes-Klug,1 Kelly Anderson,1 Paula Stewart,3 Wilfred Goldmann,3 Edward A. Hoover1 and Candace K. Mathiason1

 

1Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA; 2National Park Service; Fort Collins, CO USA; 3The Roslin Institute and Royal School of Veterinary Studies; Edinburgh, UK

 

To investigate the role mother to offspring transmission plays in chronic wasting disease (CWD), we have developed a cervid model employing the Reeve's muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi). Eight muntjac doe were orally inoculated with CWD and tested PrPCWD lymphoid positive by 4 mo post infection. Fourteen fawns were born to these eight CWD-infected doe-3 were born viable, 6 were born non-viable and 5 were harvested as fetuses from early or end-stage CWD-infected doe. All three viable fawns have demonstrated CWD IHC lymphoid biopsy positivity between 43 d post birth and 11 mo post birth. Two of these three CWD positive viable offspring have developed clinical signs consistent with TSE disease (28-33 mo post birth). Moreover, CWD prions have been detected by sPMCA in 11 of 16 tissues harvested from 6 full-term non-viable fawns and in 7 of 11 fetal tissues harvested in utero from the second and third trimester fetuses. Additional tissues and pregnancy related fluids from doe and offspring are being analyzed for CWD prions. In summary, using the muntjac deer model we have demonstrated CWD clinical disease in offspring born to CWD-infected doe, and in utero transmission of CWD from mother to offspring. These studies provide basis to further investigate the mechanisms of maternal transfer of prions.

 

=====

 


 

www.landesbioscience.com

 

 Sunday, July 21, 2013

 

*** As Chronic Wasting Disease CWD rises in deer herd, what about risk for humans?

 


 

 *** PRION2013 ***

 

Sunday, August 25, 2013

 

Prion2013 Chronic Wasting Disease CWD risk factors, ***humans, domestic cats, blood, and mother to offspring transmission

 


 

Saturday, November 2, 2013

 

Recommendation of the Swiss Expert Committee for Biosafety on the classification of activities using prion genes and prion protein January 2013

 


 

Sunday, September 08, 2013

 

Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease via surgical instruments and decontamination possibilities for the TSE prion

 


 

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

 

Cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of surface prion contamination

 


 

 Thursday, November 14, 2013

 

Prion diseases in humans: Oral and dental implications

 


 

Sunday, September 08, 2013

 

Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease via surgical instruments and decontamination possibilities for the TSE prion

 


 

Friday, August 16, 2013

 

*** Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) biannual update August 2013 U.K. and Contaminated blood products induce a highly atypical prion disease devoid of PrPres in primates

 


 

Sunday, August 11, 2013

 

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America updated report August 2013

 

*** Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America with Canada seeing an extreme increase of 48% between 2008 and 2010

 


 

PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS CWD

 

Sunday, August 25, 2013

 

***Chronic Wasting Disease CWD risk factors, humans, domestic cats, blood, and mother to offspring transmission

 


 

Sunday, July 21, 2013

 

*** As Chronic Wasting Disease CWD rises in deer herd, what about risk for humans?

 


 

Thursday, October 10, 2013

 

CJD REPORT 1994 increased risk for consumption of veal and venison and lamb

 


 

Published March 26, 2003

 

RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States

 

Terry S. Singeltary, retired (medically)

 

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?

 

Published March 26, 2003

 


 

 

 Letters

 

JAMA. 2001;285(6):733-734. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.6.733

 

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

 

Terry S. Singeltary, Sr Bacliff, Tex

 

Since this article does not have an abstract, we have provided the first 150 words of the full text.

 

KEYWORDS: creutzfeldt-jakob disease, diagnosis. To the Editor: In their Research Letter, Dr Gibbons and colleagues1 reported that the annual US death rate due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been stable since 1985. These estimates, however, are based only on reported cases, and do not include misdiagnosed or preclinical cases. It seems to me that misdiagnosis alone would drastically change these figures. An unknown number of persons with a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in fact may have CJD, although only a small number of these patients receive the postmortem examination necessary to make this diagnosis. Furthermore, only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies should be reportable nationwide and internationally.

 

References 1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA. 2000;284:2322-2323.

 


 

 

 snip...see full text and more here ;

 

 Sunday, August 11, 2013

 

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America updated report August 2013

 

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America with Canada seeing an extreme increase of 48% between 2008 and 2010

 


 

 

Saturday, November 2, 2013

 

APHIS Finalizes Bovine Import Regulations in Line with International Animal Health Standards while enhancing the spread of BSE TSE prion mad cow type disease around the Globe

 


 

 

I AGREE WITH MR. BULLARD, it’s all about trade and money, BSE TSE PRION aka mad cow type disease and sound science there from, was thrown out the window by the USDA et al that fateful day in December 23, 2003, when the USDA lost it’s ‘gold card’ of supposedly being BSE FREE, (that was and still is a sad joke though), that’s when mad cow junk science was adopted by the USDA...

 

see why below...kind regards, terry

 

 

Monday, November 4, 2013

 

*** R-CALF Bullard new BSE rule represents the abrogation of USDA’s responsibility to protect U.S. consumers and the U.S. cattle herd from the introduction of foreign animal disease

 


 

 

Saturday, November 2, 2013

 

Exploring the risks of a putative transmission of BSE to new species

 


 

 

 TSS

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