Friday, January 01, 2010

Human Prion Diseases in the United States

Human Prion Diseases in the United States


Robert C. Holman1*, Ermias D. Belay1, Krista Y. Christensen1, Ryan A. Maddox1, Arialdi M. Minino2, Arianne M. Folkema1, Dana L. Haberling1, Teresa A. Hammett1, Kenneth D. Kochanek2, James J. Sejvar1, Lawrence B. Schonberger1

1 Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America, 2 Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), Hyattsville, Maryland, United States of America

Abstract Top Background Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD), a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States.

Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979–2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996–2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172–304 deaths). The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8%) of the CJD deaths occurred among persons =65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%); the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively). Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States.

Conclusion/Significance Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

Citation: Holman RC, Belay ED, Christensen KY, Maddox RA, Minino AM, et al. (2010) Human Prion Diseases in the United States. PLoS ONE 5(1): e8521. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008521

Editor: Mick F. Tuite, University of Kent, United Kingdom

Received: July 21, 2009; Accepted: October 30, 2009; Published: January 1, 2010

Holman et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Public Domain declaration which stipulates that, once placed in the public domain, this work may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose.

Funding: The authors have no support or funding to report.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

* E-mail: rholman@cdc.gov

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Discussion Top The US incidence of CJD during 1979 through 2006 remained relatively stable at approximately 1 case per 1,000,000 persons; this incidence is similar to that reported in many other countries [23], [32]–[34]. In the present study, the large number of cases identified in ongoing US surveillance provides insights into the incidence of CJD by sex. These data demonstrate a majority (52.6%) of cases in females largely because of the higher number of women compared to men in the older age populations that experienced the highest CJD incidence rates. Incidence rates of CJD by sex were almost the same among persons <60




http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0008521?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+plosone%2FPLoSONE+%28PLoS+ONE+Alerts%3A+New+Articles%29




http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0008521&representation=PDF




Incidence and spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease variants with mixed phenotype and co-occurrence of PrPSc types: an updated classification

Piero Parchi Æ Rosaria Strammiello Æ Silvio Notari Æ Armin Giese Æ Jan P. M. Langeveld Æ Anna Ladogana Æ Inga Zerr Æ Federico Roncaroli Æ Patrich Cras Æ Bernardino Ghetti Æ Maurizio Pocchiari Æ Hans Kretzschmar Æ Sabina Capellari

Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised: 16 August 2009 / Accepted: 17 August 2009 / Published online: 29 August 2009

 The Author(s) 2009. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

Abstract

Six subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with distinctive clinico-pathological features have been identified largely based on two types of the abnormal prion protein, PrPSc, and the methionine (M)/valine (V) polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein. The existence of affected subjects showing mixed phenotypic features and concurrent PrPSc types has been reported but with inconsistencies among studies in both results and their interpretation. The issue currently complicates diagnosis and classification of cases and also has implications for disease pathogenesis. To explore the issue in depth, we carried out a systematic regional study in a large series of 225 cases. PrPSc types 1 and 2 concurrence was detected in 35% of cases and was higher in MM than in MV or VV subjects. The deposition of either type 1 or 2, when concurrent, was not random and always characterized by the coexistence of phenotypic features previously described in the pure subtypes. PrPSc type 1 accumulation and related pathology predominated in MM and MV cases, while the type 2 phenotype prevailed in VVs. Neuropathological examination best identified the mixed types 1 and 2 features in MMs and most MVs, and also uniquely revealed the cooccurrence of pathological variants sharing PrPSc type 2. In contrast, molecular typing best detected the concurrent PrPSc types in VV subjects and MV cases with kuru plaques. The present data provide an updated disease classification and are of importance for future epidemiologic and transmission studies aimed to identify etiology and extent of strain variation in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

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Discussion

Previous studies have addressed the issue of PrPSc types 1 and 2 co-occurrence in sCJD. Most of them raised the question of the influence of the number of cases and brain areas analyzed and emphasized the possibility that the cooccurrence of PrPSc types 1 and 2 is underestimated [13, 18, 20, 30, 37, 40, 43]. On the other hand, the use of a novel, potentially very sensitive approach, later shown to have pitfalls related to the detection of unspecific bands generated by partially digested PrPSc fragments [25], likely led other investigators to overestimate the incidence of the concurrent PrPSc types [35, 45]. Thus, the overall results on the phenomenon of the coexistence of molecular and clinico-pathological sCJD subtypes are at present inconclusive with respect to incidence, effect on disease phenotype and criteria for disease classification. To contribute to the full understanding of these issues, in the present study, we combined a systematic analysis of several brain regions in a large series of case including all codon 129 genotypes and the rarest phenotypes with the use of a refined methodology for the detection of the PrPSc type concurrence, which provides good sensitivity combined with high specificity [25].

After screening about 4,200 samples from a largely consecutive series of 200 cases, we estimated that PrPSc types 1 and 2 coexist in about 35% of sCJD cases, which is overall consistent with figures from some of the previous studies [13, 37, 43] in which the number of cases and areas analyzed were significantly lower. This finding supports the idea that PrPSc types co-occurrence involves a relevant but limited group of sCJD subjects and indicates that the incidence of the phenomenon had not been significantly underestimated.

As far as the characteristics of the CJD population with mixed phenotypes are concerned, our data show that the PrPSc types 1 and 2 co-occur more frequently in the MM than in the MV and VV genotypes. More specifically, the large majority of sCJD cases with concurrent PrPSc types combines features of the MM and MM 2C sCJD subtypes, in variable proportions. Most commonly, in such cases, the MM1 phenotype is predominant over the MM 2C phenotype, but the opposite situation also rarely occurs. The latter results significantly differ from those obtained in most previous studies. Indeed, Head et al. [13] mainly found a focal type 1 co-occurrence in MM and MV subjects with dominant type 2, Schoch et al. [40] detected the mixed protein types mostly in MV2 cases showing the type 1 only focally in subcortical areas, and Uro-Coste et al. [43] mainly detected a random co-occurrence of type 1 in MV or VV cases with dominant type 2. Given that only our study was based on a large series of consecutive cases, we attribute such heterogeneity of previous results to case selection biases, although methodological differences may also have contributed [43].

Since subjects with mixed PrPSc types represent a significant proportion of the sCJD population, show distinctive phenotypic features, and potentially represent a distinct subtype in terms of biological relevance, it is important that they are properly identified and are added as new subtypes in the current sCJD classification (Table 6). Despite the emphasis on molecular features of current sCJD classification, it has become increasingly clear that PrPSc typing alone, when limited to a single or even a few brain samples, fails to provide an accurate classification in a significant proportion of cases. This is mainly related to the focal nature of the ''mixed features'' in many sCJD cases with PrPSc types 1 and 2 concurrence. Indeed, we would have misclassified the disease subtype in about 27.5% (using 3F4) of cases with MM or MV genotype, if we had analyzed PrPSc only in the frontal cortex, the area more commonly used for typing worldwide. For the same reason, discrepancies may arise when PrPSc-typing and PrP immunohistochemistry are performed from individual samples taken from opposite hemispheres or even adjacent cortical gyri. However, our study shows that the regional deposition of either type 1 or type 2 when concurrent is not random and that a relatively limited number of critical brain structures must be assessed to reach an accurate classification. Furthermore, our results further underline the importance of applying both molecular and neuropathological assessment for sCJD subtype classification. In this regard, the lack of detection of PrPSc type 2 in a minority of MM subjects, despite the presence of a mixed synaptic and perivacuolar pattern of PrP deposition, indicates that when type 2 is very focal or limited in amount, histopathologic examination is more sensitive in identifying such cases than PrPSc typing, at least when only the 3F4 antibody is used. Given the very strong correlation in MM subjects between PrPSc type 2 detection and the large ''grape-like'' vacuoles and the perivacuolar pattern of PrP deposition on histopathologic examination, which is in line with results previously obtained in other studies [18, 37], we propose that these cases are classified as MM 1?2C or MV 1?2C even without the final proof of type 2 detection by western blot. Alternatively, PrPSc typing using the antibody 1E4 was in our hand as sensitive as the histopathologic examination in the detection of cases with very focal type 2. In the light of the present results, the most important regions to be assessed pathologically include the cerebral cortex from each of the 4 lobes, the striatum, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum. The cerebellum, in particular, is critical for the recognition of the synaptic pattern of PrP deposition as marker of PrPSc type 1 concurrence in the cases with dominant type 2.

Taken together, our data indicate that a protocol including the neuropathologic assessment of the eight brain regions mentioned above and PrPSc typing in four critical regions such as the temporal, parietal and occipital neocortices, and medial thalamus is strongly recommended for a reliable sCJD group classification addressing the issue of mixed phenotypes. Indeed, by applying this protocol instead of examining all 21 brain regions, we would have reached the same classification of cases in the present series.

We also wish to underline the importance of identifying correctly the sCJD cases with mixed features for transmission purposes. Indeed, the question of whether the concurrence of PrPSc types 1 and 2 in CJD reflects a coinfection by two prion strains related to specific undiscovered human genotypes, or determined by epigenetic factors remains unanswered and will largely rely on transmission studies in which the careful selection of samples will be of critical importance. Concerning this critical question, we find intriguing that the large, confluent vacuoles and the perivacuolar pattern of PrPSc deposition, we originally linked to sCJD MM 2C are also found in a subgroup of MV 2K subjects in addition to MM/MV 1?2C. In addition, we have described here the same morphological features in one case of fatal insomnia (i.e. the MM2-thalamic subtype or MM 2T) which adds to two previously reported cases [19, 30, 31]. Thus, it seems that large confluent vacuoles and the perivacuolar pattern of PrPSc deposition may be found in sCJD associated with all phenotypes linked to MM or MV at codon 129. Although this observation remains difficult to interpret at present, it appears relevant for our future understanding of the molecular basis and the extent of strain variation in sCJD. In any case, our observation strongly suggests that the phenomenon of mixed phenotypes in sCJD goes beyond PrPSc types 1 and 2 coexistence and also involves subtypes which shares the same PrPSc type. This, in turn, further underlines the importance of combining histopathological assessment and biochemical PrPSc typing for sCJD subtype characterization.

The present data also show that the association of two PrP27-30 fragments, which does not represent a bona-fide type 1 and 2 concurrence, may also be a feature of some sCJD cases. Thus, the PrP27-30 profile in VV2 cases in the cerebellum, thalamus and midbrain is sometime characterized by a doublet comprising a 18.5 kDa in addition to the typical 19 kDa band, while the western blot profile of PrP27-30 in the MV 2K cases appears almost invariably characterized by the association of two PrPSc core fragments including a classic 19 kDa type 2 band and a slower migrating band of about 20 kDa. Although these profiles truly represent concurrent PrPSc fragments, and the 20 and 18.5 kDa fragments likely reflect specific PK cleavage sites, the 20 and 18.5 kDa bands are distinguished from the type 1 and type 2 fragments because, at least to date, they were never detected independently from types 1 and 2, and are not markers of specific clinico-pathological phenotypes. Knowledge of these regional variations is nonetheless important to avoid misinterpreting a PrPSc profile as novel when only one brain region is analyzed [21].

Finally, the results obtained from the analyses of lesion profiles and clinical features in the subgroups of sCJD cases with mixed features deserve further comment. By showing that the relative ''load'' of each of the two PrPSc types significantly correlates with disease duration, the relative frequency of certain symptoms, and the ratio between cortical and cerebellar pathology, our study provides further strong evidence for the PrPSc type being a major biological determinant in human prion disease. In conclusion, the present data add to our knowledge of the prevalence and phenotypic spectrum of the sCJD variants with mixed molecular and pathological features, provide an updated molecular classification of the disease subtypes and will serve for future epidemiologic and transmission studies aimed at disclosing the etiology and extent of strain variation in sCJD.

Acknowledgments We wish to thank Barbara Polischi and Sabrina Boninsegna for her technical assistance. We also thank all the physicians who provided clinical data and helped in the collection of tissues and all family members who consented to the use of tissue for research. This study was funded in the frame of the bilateral Italy (ISS)-USA (NIH, Office for Rare Diseases) agreement on joint research on rare diseases, by the European Commission (FOOD-CT- 2004-506579), the Italian Ministry of University, Research and Technology (FIRB-2003-RBNE03FMCJ_006), the Federal Ministry of Health (ZV2-1369-340): grant PHS P30 AG010133, and the Gino Galletti Foundation.

Keywords Prion protein  Brain mapping  Molecular typing  Neurodegeneration  Classification

P. Parchi  R. Strammiello  S. Notari  S. Capellari Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Universita` di Bologna, Bologna, Italy A. Giese  H. Kretzschmar Institut fu¨r Neuropathologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universita¨t Mu¨nchen, Munich, Germany J. P. M. Langeveld Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR, Lelystad, The Netherlands A. Ladogana  M. Pocchiari Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome, Italy I. Zerr Department of Neurology, National Reference Center for TSE Surveillance, Georg-August University, Go¨ttingen, Germany F. Roncaroli Division of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Imperial College, London, UK P. Cras Born-Bunge Institute (BBI), University of Antwerp (UA), Antwerp, Belgium B. Ghetti Department of Pathology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA P. Parchi (&) Department of Neurological Sciences, Universtity of Bologna, Via Foscolo 7, 40123 Bologna, Italy e-mail: piero.parchi@unibo.it

http://www.springerlink.com/content/21552482u6761291/fulltext.pdf


MANY, MANY THANKS TO Parchi et al for this study, AND for the public access to full text. ...TSS


Tuesday, August 11, 2009

Characteristics of Established and Proposed Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Variants

Brian S. Appleby, MD; Kristin K. Appleby, MD; Barbara J. Crain, MD, PhD; Chiadi U. Onyike, MD, MHS; Mitchell T. Wallin, MD, MPH; Peter V. Rabins, MD, MPH

Background: The classic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Heidenhain, and Oppenheimer-Brownell variants are sporadic CJD (sCJD) phenotypes frequently described in the literature, but many cases present with neuropsychiatric symptoms, suggesting that there may be additional sCJD phenotypes.

Objective: To characterize clinical, diagnostic, and molecular features of 5 sCJD variants.

Design: Retrospective analysis.

Setting: The Johns Hopkins and Veterans Administration health care systems.

Participants: Eighty-eight patients with definite or probable sCJD.

Main Outcome Measures: Differences in age at onset, illness progression, diagnostic test results, and molecular subtype.

Results: The age at onset differed among sCJD variants (P=.03); the affective variant had the youngest mean age at onset (59.7 years). Survival time (P.001) and the time to clinical presentation (P=.003) differed among groups. Patients with the classic CJD phenotype had the shortest median survival time from symptom onset (66 days) and those who met criteria for the affective sCJD variant had the longest (421 days) and presented to clinicians significantly later (median time from onset to presentation, 92 days; P=.004). Cerebrospinal fluid analyses were positive for 14-3-3 protein in all of the affective variants, regardless of illness duration. Periodic sharp-wave complexes were not detected on any of the electroencephalography tracings in the Oppenheimer-Brownell group; basal ganglia hyperintensity was not detected on brain magnetic resonance imaging in this group either. All of the Heidenhain variants were of the methionine/ methionine type 1 molecular subtype.

Conclusions: The classic CJD phenotype and the Heidenhain, Oppenheimer-Brownell, cognitive, and affective sCJD variants differ by age at disease onset, survival time, and diagnostic test results. Characteristics of these 5 phenotypes are provided to facilitate further clinicopathologic investigation that may lead to more reliable and timely diagnoses of sCJD.

Arch Neurol. 2009;66(2):208-215

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COMMENT

snip...see full text ;


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/08/characteristics-of-established-and.html



Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States 2003 revisited 2009

August 10, 2009

Greetings,

I would like to submit a review of past CJD surveillance in the USA, and the urgent need to make all human TSE in the USA a reportable disease, in every state, of every age group, and to make this mandatory immediately without further delay. The ramifications of not doing so will only allow this agent to spread further in the medical, dental, surgical arena's. North America seems to have the most species with documented Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy's, most all of which have been rendered and fed back to food producing animals and to humans for years. If you look at the statistics, sporadic CJD seems to be rising in the USA, and has been, with atypical cases of the sCJD. I find deeply disturbing in the year of 2009, that Human Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy of any strain and or phenotype, of all age groups, and I stress all age groups, because human TSE's do not know age, and they do not know borders. someone 56 years old, that has a human TSE, that has surgery, can pass this TSE agent on i.e. friendly fire, and or passing it forward, and there have been documented nvCJD in a 74 year old. Remembering also that only sporadic CJD has been documented to transmit via iatrogenic routes, until recently with the 4 cases of blood related transmission, of which the origin is thought to be nvCJD donors. However most Iatrogenic CJD cases are nothing more than sporadic CJD, until the source is proven, then it becomes Iatrogenic. An oxymoron of sorts, because all sporadic CJD is, are multiple forms, or strains, or phenotypes of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, that the route and source and species have not been confirmed and or documented. When will the myth of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory be put to bed for good. This theory in my opinion, and the following there from, as the GOLD STANDARD, has done nothing more than help spread this agent around the globe. Politics and money have caused the terrible consequences to date, and the fact that TSEs are a slow incubating death, but a death that is 100% certain for those that are exposed and live long enough to go clinical. once clinical, there is no recourse, to date. But, while sub-clinical, how many can one exposed human infect? Can humans exposed to CWD and scrapie strains pass it forward as some form of sporadic CJD in the surgical and medical arenas? why must we wait decades and decades to prove this point, only to expose millions needlessly, only for the sake of the industries involved? would it not have been prudent from the beginning to just include all TSE's, and rule them out from there with transmission studies and change policies there from, as opposed to doing just the opposite? The science of TSE's have been nothing more than a political circus since the beginning, and for anyone to still believe in this one strain, one group of bovines, in one geographical location, with only one age group of human TSE i.e. nvCJD myth, for anyone to believe this today only enhances to spreading of these human and animal TSE's. This is exactly why we have been in this quagmire.

The ones that believe that there is a spontaneous CJD in 85%+ of all cases of human TSE, and the ones that do not believe that cattle can have this same phenomenon, are two of the same, the industry, and so goes the political science aspect of this tobacco and or asbestos scenario i.e. follow the money. I could go into all angles of this man made nightmare, the real facts and science, for instance, the continuing rendering technology and slow cooking with low temps that brewed this stew up, and the fact that THE USA HAD THIS TECHNOLOGY FIRST AND SHIPPED IT TO THE U.K. SOME 5 YEARS BEFORE THE U.S. STARTED USING THE SAME TECHNOLOGY, to save on fuel cost. This is what supposedly amplified the TSE agent via sheep scrapie, and spread via feed in the U.K. bovine, and other countries exporting the tainted product. BUT most everyone ignores this fact, and the fact that the U.S. has been recycling more TSE, from more species with TSEs, than any other country documented, but yet, it's all spontaneous, and the rise in sporadic CJD in the U.S. is a happenstance of bad luck ??? I respectfully disagree. To top that all off, the infamous BSE-FIREWALL that the USDA always brags about was nothing more than ink on paper, and I can prove this. YOU can ignore it, but this is FACT (see source, as late as 2007, in one recall alone, some 10,000,000 MILLION POUNDS OF BANNED MAD COW FEED WENT OUT INTO COMMERCE TO BE FED OUT, and most was never recovered. This was banned blood laced, meat and bone meal. 2006 was a banner year for banned mad cow protein going into commerce in the U.S. (see source of FDA feed ban warning letter below). I stress that the August 4, 1997 USA mad cow feed ban and this infamous BSE firewall, was nothing more than ink on paper, it was never enforceable.

I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2009. With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this old myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, medical i.e., surgical, blood, dental, endoscopy, optical, nutritional supplements, cosmetics etc. I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route. This would further have to be broken down to strain of species and then the route of transmission would further have to be broken down. Accumulation and Transmission are key to the threshold from sub- clinical to clinical disease, and key to all this, is to stop the amplification and transmission of this agent, the spreading of, no matter what strain. In my opinion, to continue with this myth that the U.K. strain of BSE one strain TSE in cows, and the nv/v CJD one strain TSE humans, and the one geographical location source i.e. U.K., and that all the rest of human TSE are just one single strain i.e. sporadic CJD, a happenstance of bad luck that just happens due to a twisted protein that just twisted the wrong way, IN 85%+ OF ALL HUMAN TSEs, when to date there are 6 different phenotypes of sCJD, and growing per Gambetti et al, and that no other animal TSE transmits to humans ??? With all due respect to all Scientist that believe this, I beg to differ. To continue with this masquerade will only continue to spread, expose, and kill, who knows how many more in the years and decades to come. ONE was enough for me, My Mom, hvCJD i.e. Heidenhain Variant CJD, DOD 12/14/97 confirmed, which is nothing more than another mans name added to CJD, like CJD itself, Jakob and Creutzfeldt, or Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, just another CJD or human TSE, named after another human. WE are only kidding ourselves with the current diagnostic criteria for human and animal TSE, especially differentiating between the nvCJD vs the sporadic CJD strains and then the GSS strains and also the FFI fatal familial insomnia strains or the ones that mimics one or the other of those TSE? Tissue infectivity and strain typing of the many variants of the human and animal TSEs are paramount in all variants of all TSE. There must be a proper classification that will differentiate between all these human TSE in order to do this. With the CDI and other more sensitive testing coming about, I only hope that my proposal will some day be taken seriously. ...

please see history, and the ever evolving TSE science to date ;


Saturday, June 13, 2009

Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States 2003 revisited 2009


http://cjdusa.blogspot.com/2009/06/monitoring-occurrence-of-emerging-forms.html



From: TSS
Subject: Re: Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States [FULL TEXT] Date: September 10, 2003 at 1:43 pm PST

In Reply to: Re: Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States [FULL TEXT] posted by TSS on March 27, 2003 at 7:15 am:

RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States

IN the reply from Dr. Maddox to Terry S. Singeltary Sr., he states;

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If BSE causes a sporadic CJD-like illness in humans, an increase in sporadic CJD cases would be expected to first occur in the United Kingdom, where the vast majority of vCJD cases have been reported. In the United Kingdom during 1997 through 2002, however, the overall average annual mortality rate for sporadic CJD was not elevated; it was about 1 case per million population per year. In addition, during this most recent 6-year period following the first published description of vCJD in 1996, there was no increasing trend in the reported annual number of UK sporadic CJD deaths.[3, 5] Furthermore, surveillance in the UK has shown no increase in the proportion of sporadic CJD cases that are homozygous for methionine (Will RG, National CJD Surveillance Unit, United Kingdom, 2003; personal communication)...

snip...

http://www.neurology.org/cgi/eletters/60/2/176#535



THERE seems to be some difference of opinion;

Mouse model sheds new light on human prion disease

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Professor John Collinge said “We are not saying that all or even most cases of sporadic CJD are as a result of BSE exposure, but some more recent cases may be – the incidence of sporadic CJD has shown an upward trend in the UK over the last decade. While most of this apparent increase may be because doctors are now more aware of CJD and better at diagnosing it, serious consideration should be given to a proportion of this rise being BSE-related. Switzerland, which has had a substantial BSE epidemic, has noted a sharp recent increase in sporadic CJD.

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http://www.mrc.ac.uk/txt/index/public-interest/public-news-4/public-news_archive/public-newsarchive_nov_dec_02/public-bse_and_sporadic_cjd.htm




IN REALITY, sporadic CJD is 1 in 9,000 in 50 years of age and above, and that's with a inadequate or what I call passive surveillance system. see below ;

Dr. William Shulaw, a veterinarian with The Ohio State University extension service, is involved in a nationwide program to eradicate scrapie, the form of BSE found in sheep.

Shulaw said the chances of a person getting sporadic Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease is about one in a million. But that's the total population, infants, children, adults and the elderly. Chances increase to one in 9,000 when the group is restricted to those age 50 and older.

http://www.pjstar.com/stories/082207/REG_BE523NH6.049.php





ALSO, Dr. Maddox states;

make routine mortality surveillance a useful surrogate for ongoing CJD surveillance...

THIS has proven not very useful in the U.K.;

THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CJD RG WILL 1984 (182 PAGES)

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One reason for this was the _inaccuracy_ in coding of cases correctly certified as CJD Coding is carried out by staff who are not medically qualified and it is not surprising that coding errors occur in the processing of large numbers of certificates. In 1982, 12,000 certificates per week were processed at the office of population censuses and surveys bu 15 coders and 6 checkers (Alderson et al., 1983). The occurrence of both inter- and intra-observer coding errors has been described (Curb et al., 1983) and the _inaccuracies_ of BOTH certification and coding discovered in this study _support_ the introduction of a more accurate system of death certificates and a more detailed and specific coding system...

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http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m26/tab01.pdf




http://web.archive.org/web/20040521215716/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m26/tab01.pdf




AS implied in the Inset 25 we must not _ASSUME_ that transmission of BSE to other species will invariably present pathology typical of a scrapie-like disease.

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http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1991/01/04004001.pdf



http://web.archive.org/web/20060307063542/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1991/01/04004001.pdf




DR. Maddox states here;

In collaboration with appropriate local and state health departments and the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, CDC is facilitating or conducting such surveillance and case- investigations, including related laboratory studies to characterize CJD and CWD prions.

HOWEVER in a recent article in the UPI out of Washington;

CJD screening may miss thousands of cases

By Steve Mitchell UPI Medical Correspondent Published 7/21/2003 3:00 PM

snip...

In addition, the NPDPSC sees less than half of all the CJD cases each year, so the CDC's investigational system not only is missing many of the misdiagnosed CJD cases, it also is not conducting autopsies on most of the detected cases.

snip...

http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20030721-102924-4786r



ALSO in Philip Yams book 'The Pathological Protein';

''Answering critics like Terry Singeltary, who feels that the US undercounts CJD, Schonberger _conceded_ that the current surveillance system has errors but stated that most of the errors will be confined to the older population''....

http://www.thepathologicalprotein.com/



THERE has been a _documented_ case of nv/v CJD in a 74 year old, so the errors Schonberger speaks of (above) would be of significant importance, if one believes in the nv/v CJD 'only' theory.

NOW we have _documented_ cases of very young CJD victims in the USA continuing to appear in several different states.

HOW does Dr. Maddox explain this, and does he still believe that a National CJD surveillance program with a CJD questionnaire to every victims family is still not warranted?


WITH CWD and Scrapie running rampant in the USA, with BSE now _documented_ in North America, with the feeding of ruminant-to-ruminant animal protein still happening in the USA in 2003 even though there has been a partial voluntary ban on ruminant feeding since 8/4/97, with only 48,000 BSE/TSE tests done on USA cattle in some 14 years of surveillance, when in any given year there are 100 million cattle in the USA, with all this, i think refusing to make CJD/TSEs reportable Nationally in the USA is not ONLY a grave mistake, but in my opinion, should be looked at with great suspicion...


Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, TEXAS USA 77518



Terry S. Singeltary Sr., et al.

Singeltary Reply to Dr. Maddox, Belay, Schonberger et al 11/13/04;


Greetings Dr. Maddox, Belay, Schonberger et al;


IN your reply to me on 26 March 2003, Dr. Maddox, Belay, Schonberger et al write;


Mr. Singletary raises several issues related to current Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease (CJD) surveillance activities. Although CJD is not a notifiable disease in most states, its unique characteristics, particularly its invariably fatal outcome within usually a year of onset, make routine mortality surveillance a useful surrogate for ongoing CJD surveillance.[1]

I kindly wish to submit the following to dispute this;


Draft Proposal For The Monitoring of Creutzfeldt-Kakob Disease 1989 Dr. R. Will

snip...

IDENTIFICATION OF CASES

Cases of CJD may be identified from death certificates, but this alone is unlikely to provide adequate monitoring. ERRORS are made in certification and diagnosis; in the Oxford study death certificates were obtained on a series of known confirmed cases and CJD was mentioned in only 66% of certificates. In another series of 175 certified cases, 42 patients were judged not to have suffered from CJD after examination of case notes (7)...

full text;


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1989/05/00005001.pdf




http://web.archive.org/web/20050526035006/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1989/05/00005001.pdf





THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CJD RG WILL 1984 (182 PAGES)

snip...

One reason for this was the _inaccuracy_ in coding of cases correctly certified as CJD Coding is carried out by staff who are not medically qualified and it is not surprising that coding errors occur in the processing of large numbers of certificates. In 1982, 12,000 certificates per week were processed at the office of population censuses and surveys bu 15 coders and 6 checkers (Alderson et al., 1983). The occurrence of both inter- and intra-observer coding errors has been described (Curb et al., 1983) and the _inaccuracies_ of BOTH certification and coding discovered in this study _support_ the introduction of a more accurate system of death certificates and a more detailed and specific coding system...

snip...


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m26/tab01.pdf




http://web.archive.org/web/20040521215716/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m26/tab01.pdf





IN your reply to me on 26 March 2003, Dr. Maddox, Belay, Schonberger et al write;


[2] but only limited data seeking such evidence exist. Overall, the previously published case-control studies that have evaluated environmental sources of infection for sporadic CJD have not consistently identified strong evidence for a common risk factor.

I kindly wish to submit the following to dispute this;

11 November 2004

Genetic make-up may determine what type of CJD occurs when humans are infected with BSE

New research published by a team from the Medical Research Council (MRC) Prion Unit offers an explanation about why only people with a particular genetic make-up have so far developed vCJD. It also provides evidence that other types of BSE-derived prion infection with a different pattern of symptoms might occur in humans. The findings are published in the journal Science.

Variant CJD (vCJD) is the human disease thought to be caused by eating food contaminated with the infectious agent, known as a prion, responsible for the epidemic of BSE or “mad cow disease” in cattle. So far, everyone known to have developed vCJD has been of a particular genetic type – known as MM. Until now it has been a mystery why everyone that has developed vCJD is of the MM type and one possibility is that they are simply the first to develop the disease when infected with BSE, and that people with the other genetic types1 (known as VV and MV*) infected with BSE prions will also develop vCJD, but some years later.

In a series of experiments spanning more than ten years, the MRC team has been studying mice genetically modified so that they make human prion proteins – which are used to model human susceptibility to BSE. The team has now shown that mice with the human VV genetic type do become infected when given BSE or vCJD prions, but manifest a different form of the disease which looks quite different to vCJD and has a novel prion “strain” type.

Remarkably, when these novel prions were used to infect mice of the MM genetic type, the mice either developed a disease very like vCJD, or else a pattern of disease that looks like so-called sporadic CJD – the “classical” form of CJD. This form has been known about for many years, is seen all over the world and has not hitherto been associated with BSE. However, the new strain identified in the mice, being called ‘type 5’, has not been seen yet in people and we do not know what pattern of disease it would cause. It could look like one of the forms of classical or sporadic CJD or perhaps be yet another different “variant” form.

The work from the MRC team suggests that type 4 prions, the type associated with vCJD, can only propagate themselves in people that make the M form of the protein. It seems the V form of the protein just cannot adopt the particular molecular shape that characterises type 4.

The studies in mice also suggest that if these prions were to pass from person to person (for example by blood transfusion) then, depending on the genetic type of the person becoming infected, at least three different patterns of disease might result: type 2 (which is seen in sporadic CJD); type 4 (which causes vCJD) or type 5 (which may cause a new pattern of disease).

Professor John Collinge, Director of the MRC Prion Unit, which is based at University College London, said: “These mouse studies give us vital clues about the behaviour of prions and how they appear to modify and adapt depending on the genetic makeup of the individual they are infecting.

“We always have to be cautious about making direct comparison to the human condition, but our work strongly suggests that we can not assume only those with one genetic profile are vulnerable to BSE infection.

“At this stage it is not possible to say how this should alter estimates of those likely to become ill, but our findings do suggest we should be taking steps to draw up a more sophisticated system of categorizing the disease so that we don’t mistake BSE related infection for a version of sporadic CJD.”

For more information call the MRC press office on 020 7 637 6011

Notes to Editors

*The human prion protein comes in two common forms, known as M and V. Because everyone has two copies of this gene, there are three possible genetic types: MM, MV and VV.

Paper - Human Prion protein v129 prevent expression of vCJD phenotype – Science On line 11.11.04

Prions are rogue forms of one of the body’s own proteins – known as the prion protein – which are misshapen. There are several different rogue or misshapen forms that can infect humans, and these different types of prions are known as “strains”. This is analogous to different strains of other germs such ‘flu virus causing influenza or strains of salmonella causing different forms of food poisoning for example.

The strain of prion causing vCJD is known as type 4, types 1-3 cause the different forms of sporadic or classical CJD. Each strain causes a different pattern or type of disease. It is known that prion strains can change or “mutate” when they pass between different animals.

The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a national organisation funded by the UK tax-payer. Its business is medical research aimed at improving human health; everyone stands to benefit from the outputs. The research it supports and the scientists it trains meet the needs of the health services, the pharmaceutical and other health-related industries and the academic world. MRC has funded work which has led to some of the most significant discoveries and achievements in medicine in the UK. About half of the MRC’s expenditure of £430 million is invested in its 40 Institutes, Units and Centres. The remaining half goes in the form of grant support and training awards to individuals and teams in universities and medical schools.

©2004 Medical Research Council


http://www.mrc.ac.uk/public-11_november_2004


BSE prions propagate as either variant CJD-like or sporadic CJD-like

prion strains in transgenic mice expressing human prion protein

Emmanuel A. Asante, Jacqueline M. Linehan, Melanie Desbruslais, Susan Joiner, Ian Gowland, Andrew L. Wood, Julie Welch, Andrew F. Hill, Sarah E. Lloyd, Jonathan D.F. Wadsworth and John Collinge1

MRC Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, University College, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK 1 Corresponding author e-mail: j.collinge@prion.ucl.ac.uk

Received August 1, 2002; revised September 24, 2002; accepted October 17, 2002

Abstract

Variant CreutzfeldtJakob disease (vCJD) has been recognized to date only in individuals homozygous for methionine at PRNP codon 129. Here we show that transgenic mice expressing human PrP methionine 129, inoculated with either bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or variant CJD prions, may develop the neuropathological and molecular phenotype of vCJD, consistent with these diseases being caused by the same prion strain. Surprisingly, however, BSE transmission to these transgenic mice, in addition to producing a vCJD-like phenotype, can also result in a distinct molecular phenotype that is indistinguishable from that of sporadic CJD with PrPSc type 2. These data suggest that more than one BSE-derived prion strain might infect humans; it is therefore possible that some patients with a phenotype consistent with sporadic CJD may have a disease arising from BSE exposure...


http://embojournal.npgjournals.com/cgi/content/full/21/23/6358



THE new findings of BASE in cattle in Italy of Identification of a second bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy: Molecular similarities with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0305777101v1



Adaptation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent to primates

and comparison with Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease: Implications for

human health

THE findings from Corinne Ida Lasmézas*, [dagger] , Jean-Guy Fournier*, Virginie Nouvel*,

Hermann Boe*, Domíníque Marcé*, François Lamoury*, Nicolas Kopp [Dagger

] , Jean-Jacques Hauw§, James Ironside¶, Moira Bruce [] , Dominique

Dormont*, and Jean-Philippe Deslys* et al, that The agent responsible for French iatrogenic growth hormone-linked CJD taken as a control is very different from vCJD but is similar to that found in one case of sporadic CJD and one sheep scrapie isolate;

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/041490898v1



Characterization of two distinct prion strains derived from bovine spongiform encephalopathy transmissions to inbred mice

Sarah E. Lloyd, Jacqueline M. Linehan, Melanie Desbruslais, Susan Joiner, Jennifer Buckell, Sebastian Brandner, Jonathan D. F. Wadsworth and John Collinge

Correspondence John Collinge j.collinge@prion.ucl.ac.uk

MRC Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, University College, London WC1N 3BG, UK Received 9 December 2003 Accepted 27 April 2004

Distinct prion strains can be distinguished by differences in incubation period, neuropathology and biochemical properties of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in inoculated mice. Reliable comparisons of mouse prion strain properties can only be achieved after passage in genetically identical mice, as host prion protein sequence and genetic background are known to modulate prion disease phenotypes. While multiple prion strains have been identified in sheep scrapie and CreutzfeldtJakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is thought to be caused by a single prion strain. Primary passage of BSE prions to different lines of inbred mice resulted in the propagation of two distinct PrPSc types, suggesting that two prion strains may have been isolated. To investigate this further, these isolates were subpassaged in a single line of inbred mice (SJL) and it was confirmed that two distinct prion strains had been identified. MRC1 was characterized by a short incubation time (110±3 days), a mono-glycosylated-dominant PrPSc type and a generalized diffuse pattern of PrP-immunoreactive deposits, while MRC2 displayed a much longer incubation time (155±1 days), a di-glycosylated-dominant PrPSc type and a distinct pattern of PrP- immunoreactive deposits and neuronal loss. These data indicate a crucial involvement of the host genome in modulating prion strain selection and propagation in mice. It is possible that multiple disease phenotypes may also be possible in BSE prion infection in humans and other animals.

http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/85/8/2471



THE recent discoveries of previously unidentified strains of Scrapie such as 221C44 and the Nor9845;

FULL TEXT APPRX. 91 PAGES

UK Strategy for Research and Development on Human and Animal Health Aspects of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

2004-2007

http://www.mrc.ac.uk/pdf-uk_strategy_v5.2.pdf



IP/04/1324

Brussels, 28 October 2004

Commission submits French Research Findings on TSE in a goat to Expert

Panel

Following the findings by a research group in France that they suspect the presence of a TSE infection in a goats brain which tests cannot distinguish from BSE, the European Commission has submitted data received from the French authorities to the Community Reference Laboratory (CRL) for TSEs based in Weybridge, England, for an evaluation by an expert panel. TSEs are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, namely BSE affecting cattle, and scrapie affecting goats and sheep. The expert panel will evaluate, over the next two weeks or so, the scientific evidence to see if it indicates the presence of BSE in the goat. This isolated incident does not present a risk to public health as the goat and its herd did not enter the food and feed chain.

snip...

http://europa.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/04/1324&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en



According to Nov. 2 Yomiuri Newspaper, researchers of the Prion Disease Research Center, the National Institute of Animal Health of Japan reported in the International Symposium of Prion Diseases held in Sendai from October 31 to November 2., 2004, that they detected prion in the adrenal gland and peripheral (sciatic and peroneal) nerves of the 11th BSE case of Japan (a 94-months old cow found dead on the farm on March 4 this year).

http://www.maff.go.jp/www/press/cont2/20041101press_7.htm

(only in Japanese)




Sendai and the International Symposium of Prion Diseases held here from October 31 to November 2.,2004

Abstract

ORAL 8

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Japan

Takashi Yokoyama, Kumiko M. Kimura, Morikazu Shinagawa Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, Japan

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has become an important problem not only for animal industry, but also for public health. In Japan, BSE was first recognized in September 2001 by fallen stock surveillance. Since October 2001, BSE examination for all cattle slaughtered at abattoirs has started. In April 2004, all dead cattle examination (over 24 months) has been conducted at livestock hygiene service center. Samples positive in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are further subjected to western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Thirteen BSE cases have been reported by September 2004. Twelve cases were classified as typical BSE, and the remained one was an atypical BSE. Variant forms of BSE with atypical histopathological and/or biochemical phenotype were reported in Italy and France. Further study is required for BSE prion characteristics. To characterize BSE prion properties, brain homogenates of Japanese BSE cases were intracerebrally inoculated into wild-type mice. The first case (BSE/Chiba) was successfully transmitted to rodents. The mean incubation periods (409.0 days) in this experiment was preferably longer than that of previously reported. PrPSc distribution, prion titer, mice susceptibility and/or storage condition of sample might be influenced the result. Recently, we introduced transgenic mice that overexpress a bovine PrP gene to overcome the species barrier problem. These mice are expected to accelerate the transmission experiment of BSE prion. Transmission of atypical BSE case is undergoing by using these transgenic mice.

http://www.knt.co.jp/ec/2004/prion/E2.htm



Docket No. 2003N-0312 Animal Feed Safety System [TSS SUBMISSION]

From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. [flounder@wt.net]
Sent: Tuesday, July 29, 2003 1:03 PM To: fdadockets@oc.fda.gov
Cc: ggraber@cvm.fda.gov; Linda.Grassie@fda.gov; BSE-L
Subject: Docket No. 2003N-0312 Animal Feed Safety System [TSS SUBMISSION TO DOCKET 2003N-0312]

snip...

Greetings FDA,

PLUS, if the USA continues to flagrantly ignore the _documented_ science to date about the known TSEs in the USA (let alone the undocumented TSEs in cattle), it is my opinion, every other Country that is dealing with BSE/TSE should boycott the USA and demand that the SSC reclassify the USA BSE GBR II risk assessment to BSE/TSE GBR III 'IMMEDIATELY'. for the SSC to _flounder_ any longer on this issue, should also be regarded with great suspicion as well. NOT to leave out the OIE and it's terribly flawed system of disease surveillance. the OIE should make a move on CWD in the USA, and make a risk assessment on this as a threat to human health...

snip...full text;

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/03n0312/03N-0312_emc-000001.txt



EFSA Scientific Report on the Assessment of the Geographical BSE-Risk (GBR) of the United States of America (USA) Publication date: 20 August 2004

Adopted July 2004 (Question N° EFSA-Q-2003-083)

* 167 kB Report

* 105 kB Summary

Summary of the Scientific Report

The European Food Safety Authority and its Scientific Expert Working Group on the Assessment of the Geographical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Risk (GBR) were asked by the European Commission (EC) to provide an up-to-date scientific report on the GBR in the United States of America, i.e. the likelihood of the presence of one or more cattle being infected with BSE, pre-clinically as well as clinically, in USA. This scientific report addresses the GBR of USA as assessed in 2004 based on data covering the period 1980-2003.

The BSE agent was probably imported into USA and could have reached domestic cattle in the middle of the eighties. These cattle imported in the mid eighties could have been rendered in the late eighties and therefore led to an internal challenge in the early nineties. It is possible that imported meat and bone meal (MBM) into the USA reached domestic cattle and leads to an internal challenge in the early nineties.

A processing risk developed in the late 80s/early 90s when cattle imports from BSE risk countries were slaughtered or died and were processed (partly) into feed, together with some imports of MBM. This risk continued to exist, and grew significantly in the mid 90’s when domestic cattle, infected by imported MBM, reached processing. Given the low stability of the system, the risk increased over the years with continued imports of cattle and MBM from BSE risk countries.

EFSA concludes that the current GBR level of USA is III, i.e. it is likely but not confirmed that domestic cattle are (clinically or pre- clinically) infected with the BSE-agent. As long as there are no significant changes in rendering or feeding, the stability remains extremely/very unstable. Thus, the probability of cattle to be (pre- clinically or clinically) infected with the BSE-agent persistently increases.

http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/efsa_scientific_reports/gbr_assessments/573_en.html



IN your reply to me on 26 March 2003, Dr. Maddox, Belay, Schonberger et al write;

If BSE causes a sporadic CJD-like illness in humans, an increase in sporadic CJD cases would be expected to first occur in the United Kingdom, where the vast majority of vCJD cases have been reported. In the United Kingdom during 1997 through 2002, however, the overall average annual mortality rate for sporadic CJD was not elevated; it was about 1 case per million population per year. In addition, during this most recent 6-year period following the first published description of vCJD in 1996, there was no increasing trend in the reported annual number of UK sporadic CJD deaths.[3, 5] Furthermore, surveillance in the UK has shown no increase in the proportion of sporadic CJD cases that are homozygous for methionine (Will RG, National CJD Surveillance Unit, United Kingdom, 2003; personal communication).

I kindly wish to submit the following to dispute this;

Mouse model sheds new light on human prion disease

snip...

Professor John Collinge said We are not saying that all or even most cases of sporadic CJD are as a result of BSE exposure, but some more recent cases may be  the incidence of sporadic CJD has shown an upward trend in the UK over the last decade. While most of this apparent increase may be because doctors are now more aware of CJD and better at diagnosing it, serious consideration should be given to a proportion of this rise being BSE-related. Switzerland, which has had a substantial BSE epidemic, has noted a sharp recent increase in sporadic CJD.

snip...

http://www.mrc.ac.uk/index/public-interest/public-bse_and_sporadic_cjd.htm



http://www.mrc.ac.uk/txt/index/public-interest/public-news-4/public-news_archive/public-newsarchive_nov_dec_02/public-bse_and_sporadic_cjd.htm



A simple look at sporadic CJD statistics in EU countries with BSE will reveal this;

CANADA 2 IN 94 COMPARED TO 30 IN 2002

FRANCE 35 IN 93 COMPARED TO 102 IN 2003

GERMANY 21 IN 93 COMPARED TO 112 IN 2003

ITALY 27 IN 93 TO COMPARED TO 75 IN 2003

UK 37 IN 93 COMPARED TO 74 IN 2003

USA (UNKNOWN...TSS)

http://www.eurocjd.ed.ac.uk/sporadic.htm



EVEN SEAC admits a rise in sporadic CJD in UK;

SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY ADVISORY COMMITTEE Draft minutes of the open session of the 84th meeting held on 28th September 2004

snip...

In contrast, the number of deaths in the UK from sCJD per annum had increased but this may reflect improved case ascertainment. A similar increase in sCJD had been observed in other countries... snip..

HOWEVER, I do not agree with this _assumption_!

I believe there are multiple routes and sources for this agent and they are going ignored, while being called 'sporadic' and or 'spontaneous' or 'classic' CJD.

TO continue to ignore Professor Collinge/Asanta et al's advice;

“We always have to be cautious about making direct comparison to the human condition, but our work strongly suggests that we can not assume only those with one genetic profile are vulnerable to BSE infection.

“At this stage it is not possible to say how this should alter estimates of those likely to become ill, but our findings do suggest we should be taking steps to draw up a more sophisticated system of categorizing the disease so that we don’t mistake BSE related infection for a version of sporadic CJD.”

TO continue to ingore this and the other evidence that is and has been mounting about sporadic CJD not being as sporadic and or spontaneos as once thought, to continue this ignorance and blantantly let this agent continue to spread via the proven routes to date and continue to infect and kill, should warrant a TSE Inquiry in the USA by a Congressional Investigation followed by International Council of some kind. WE are not only infecting US citizens by this ignorance, but also the International community that visits our Country. With the recent findings of nv/v CJD transmitting via blood, we must not flounder any longer;

Summary of SEACs discussion on the second presumed case of blood transfusion-associated infection with vCJD

7. SEAC agreed that the western blot results and glycotype profile suggested it was unlikely that the infection was preclinical sporadic CJD (sCJD). The committee noted that a single study by Glatzel et al (2003) had reported PrPres in the spleen of sCJD clinical cases. However, the levels of PrPres present in sCJD cases were low and detected in patients with a lengthy clinical illness from sporadic CJD.

http://www.seac.gov.uk/statements/state070804.htm



vCJD: Blood Transfusion Incident

http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds03/text/31217-09.htm



CJD (all human TSEs) should be made reportable Nationally and Internationally immediately, with a follow up investigation and questionnaire of each victim (family) asking questions pertaining to route and source of agent. ALL ages must be included in this. Anything less will only allow the agent to continue to spread and kill...

Thank You,

with kindest regards, I am sincerely,

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA CJD WATCH


http://www.neurology.org/cgi/eletter-submit




IF we look at sporadic incidence of CJD in UK from 1993 to 2003, the incidence rose from 37 in 1993 to 77 in 2003. THIS seems to show an increase to me? I do not understand the statement ;

However, in the period following the first published description of vCJD in 1996, there was no increasing trend in the reported annual number of U.K. sporadic CJD deaths (52).

IF we go further and look at some of the other documented BSE countries, you will the increase of sporadic CJD there as well ;

Canada from 2 to 25

France from 35 to 108

Germany 21+ to 96

Italy 27 to 76

http://www.eurocjd.ed.ac.uk/sporadic.htm


and Switzerland sporadic CJD ;

Swiss rise in CJD raises concerns over possible BSE link [LONDON] THE LANCET

Plaque attack: Swiss patients have spongiform patterns in the brain typical of sporadic CJD. The number of people dying from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has risen sharply in Switzerland -- sparking fears of a possible link with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

BSE is thought to be the cause of a distinctive form of the brain-wasting disease known as variant CJD. The Swiss cases, in contrast, are standard 'sporadic' CJD. Each year between 1997 and 2000, no more than 11 Swiss people developed CJD. But 19 cases were reported in 2001, and seven were recorded in the first quarter of this year. This is some four times higher than the incidence elsewhere, reports a team led by Adriano Aguzzi of the University Hospital Zurich (M. Glatzel et al. Lancet 360, 139-141; 2002).

The increase could be a mere statistical blip, or it may be due to increased awareness of the disease leading to more diagnoses. More disturbing is the possibility that the cases are linked to the consumption of BSE-infected meat products -- which would mean that the BSE agent can cause two distinct forms of CJD.

Possible links between the Swiss CJD cases and BSE will now be explored by strain-typing experiments in which the disease is transmitted to mice. These tests will take at least a year to complete. "It's the best way to establish or exclude any suspected link," says Moira Bruce of the UK Institute for Animal Health's Neuropathogenesis Unit in Edinburgh.

======================================

Experiences in England and Switzerland -- two countries that discovered mad cow disease in their cattle -- have heightened concerns about the possibility some cases of sporadic CJD are due to consuming mad-cow-tainted beef. Both countries have reported increases in sporadic CJD since mad cow was first detected in British herds in 1986.

Switzerland discovered last year its CJD rate was twice that of any other country in the world. Switzerland had been seeing about eight to 11 cases per year from 1997 to 2000. Then the incidence more than doubled, to 19 cases in 2001 and 18 cases in 2002.

http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20030721-102924-4786r



Mouse model sheds new light on human prion disease

snip...

Professor John Collinge said We are not saying that all or even most

cases of sporadic CJD are as a result of BSE exposure, but some more

recent cases may be  the incidence of sporadic CJD has shown an upward

trend in the UK over the last decade. While most of this apparent

increase may be because doctors are now more aware of CJD and better at

diagnosing it, serious consideration should be given to a proportion of

this rise being BSE-related. Switzerland, which has had a substantial

BSE epidemic, has noted a sharp recent increase in sporadic CJD.

snip...

http://www.mrc.ac.uk/txt/index/public-interest/public-news-4/public-news_archive/public-news-archive_nov_dec_02/public-bse_and_sporadic_cjd.htm




snip...END...TSS



From: TSS
Subject: Re: Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States [FULL TEXT] Date: March 27, 2003 at 3:46 pm PST

In Reply to: Re: Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States [FULL TEXT] posted by TSS on March 27, 2003 at 7:15 am:

Subject: Re: RE--Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States From: ps Date: Wed, 26 Mar 2003 18:09:51 -0800 To: BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de

######## Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########


"Although CJD is not a notifiable disease in most states, its unique characteristics, particularly its invariably fatal outcome within usually a year of onset, make routine mortality surveillance a useful surrogate for ongoing CJD surveillance."

I really cannot follow the reasoning above. Which "unique characteristics" and which "routine mortality surveillance" is the author talking about?

"However, in states where making CJD officially notifiable would meaningfully facilitate the collection of data to monitor for variant CJD (vCJD) or other emerging prion diseases, CDC encourages the designation of CJD as a notifiable disease."

Which states would that be?

Paul Schenker

########### http://mailhost.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/warc/bse-l.html ############


PRIONICS

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# Dr. Bruno Oesch, Chairman - Profile ... # Dr. Marianne Klöti # Prof. Dr. Dietrich Nord # Dr. Markus Moser - Profile ... # Gerhard F. Musshafen - Profile ...

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# Dr. Bruno Oesch - Profile ... # Dr. Markus Moser - Profile ... # Gerhard F. Musshafen - Profile ... # Karl Kalf - Profile ... # Bruno Odermatt - Profile ...


http://www.prionics.ch/prionics-e.htm


http://www.prionics.ch/index.htm


http://www.prionics.ch/prionics-e.htm



TSS


http://www.prionics.ch/prionics-e.htm






Confucius is confused again? how in 1996 and earlier can the 28 sporadic CJD victims and the one-in-a-million there from, how can it still be one in a million in 2008, with the sporadic CJD count rising to 205, still be one-in-a-million? and the years inbetween, steady rise just about every year, and it still be only one-in-a-million, year after year after years? i suppose just more of that fuzzy math, which you can see here;


http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/pdf/case-table.pdf




Friday, January 01, 2010

Human Prion Diseases in the United States

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2010/01/human-prion-diseases-in-united-states.html



my comments to PLosone here ;

http://www.plosone.org/annotation/listThread.action?inReplyTo=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fannotation%2F04ce2b24-613d-46e6-9802-4131e2bfa6fd&root=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fannotation%2F04ce2b24-613d-46e6-9802-4131e2bfa6fd






WHO WILL WATCH THE CHILDREN for CJD over the next 5 decades ?

SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM FROM DOWNER CATTLE UPDATE

http://downercattle.blogspot.com/2009/05/who-will-watch-children.html


http://downercattle.blogspot.com/





2003

Neurology 2003;60:176-181 © 2003 American Academy of Neurology

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Views & Reviews

Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States Ermias D. Belay, MD, Ryan A. Maddox, MPH, Pierluigi Gambetti, MD and Lawrence B. Schonberger, MD From the Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases (Drs. Belay and Schonberger and R.A. Maddox), National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; and National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (Dr. Gambetti), Division of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Ermias D. Belay, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop A-39, Atlanta, GA 30333.

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) attracted increased attention in the mid-1980s because of the emergence among UK cattle of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which has been shown to be transmitted to humans, causing a variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). The BSE outbreak has been reported in 19 European countries, Israel, and Japan, and human cases have so far been identified in four European countries, and more recently in a Canadian resident and a US resident who each lived in Britain during the BSE outbreak. To monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD, such as vCJD, in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has been conducting surveillance for human TSEs through several mechanisms, including the establishment of the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center. Physicians are encouraged to maintain a high index of suspicion for vCJD and use the free services of the pathology center to assess the neuropathology of clinically diagnosed and suspected cases of CJD or other TSEs.

http://www.neurology.org/cgi/content/abstract/60/2/176


RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States

26 March 2003

Terry S. Singeltary, retired (medically) CJD WATCH

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?

http://www.neurology.org/cgi/eletters/60/2/176


Reply to Singletary 26 March 2003

Ryan A. Maddox, MPH

Mr. Singletary raises several issues related to current Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease (CJD) surveillance activities. Although CJD is not a notifiable disease in most states, its unique characteristics, particularly its invariably fatal outcome within usually a year of onset, make routine mortality surveillance a useful surrogate for ongoing CJD surveillance.[1] In addition, because CJD is least accurately diagnosed early in the course of illness, notifiable-disease surveillance could be less accurate than, if not duplicative of, current mortality surveillance.[1] However, in states where making CJD officially notifiable would meaningfully facilitate the collection of data to monitor for variant CJD (vCJD) or other emerging prion diseases, CDC encourages the designation of CJD as a notifiable disease.[1] Moreover, CDC encourages physicians to report any diagnosed or suspected CJD cases that may be of special public health importance (e.g., vCJD, iatrogenic CJD, unusual CJD clusters).

As noted in our article, strong evidence is lacking for a causal link between chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk and human disease,[2] but only limited data seeking such evidence exist. Overall, the previously published case-control studies that have evaluated environmental sources of infection for sporadic CJD have not consistently identified strong evidence for a common risk factor.[3] However, the power of a case-control study to detect a rare cause of CJD is limited, particularly given the relatively small number of subjects generally involved and its long incubation period, which may last for decades. Because only a very small proportion of the US population has been exposed to CWD, a targeted surveillance and investigation of unusual cases or case clusters of prion diseases among persons at increased risk of exposure to CWD is a more efficient approach to detecting the possible transmission of CWD to humans. In collaboration with appropriate local and state health departments and the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, CDC is facilitating or conducting such surveillance and case- investigations, including related laboratory studies to characterize CJD and CWD prions.

Mr. Singletary also expresses concern over a recent publication by Asante and colleagues indicating the possibility that some sporadic CJD cases may be attributable to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).[4] The authors reported that transgenic mice expressing human prion protein homozygous for methionine at codon 129, when inoculated with BSE prions, developed a molecular phenotype consistent with a subtype of sporadic CJD. Although the authors implied that BSE might cause a sporadic CJD-like illness among persons homozygous for methionine, the results of their research with mice do not necessarily directly apply to the transmission of BSE to humans. If BSE causes a sporadic CJD-like illness in humans, an increase in sporadic CJD cases would be expected to first occur in the United Kingdom, where the vast majority of vCJD cases have been reported. In the United Kingdom during 1997 through 2002, however, the overall average annual mortality rate for sporadic CJD was not elevated; it was about 1 case per million population per year. In addition, during this most recent 6-year period following the first published description of vCJD in 1996, there was no increasing trend in the reported annual number of UK sporadic CJD deaths.[3, 5] Furthermore, surveillance in the UK has shown no increase in the proportion of sporadic CJD cases that are homozygous for methionine (Will RG, National CJD Surveillance Unit, United Kingdom, 2003; personal communication).

References

1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Diagnosis and reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. JAMA 2001;285:733-734.

2. Belay ED, Maddox RA, Gambetti P, Schonberger LB. Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States. Neurology 2003;60:176-181.

3. Belay ED. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans. Annu Rev Microbiol 1999;53:283-314.

4. Asante EA, Linehan JM, Desbruslais M, et al. BSE prions propagate as either variant CJD-like or sporadic CJD-like prion strains in transgenic mice expressing human prion protein. EMBO J 2002;21:6358-6366.

5. The UK Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit. CJD statistics. Available at: http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/figures.htm. Accessed February 18, 2003.

http://www.neurology.org/cgi/eletters/60/2/176


Posted On December 20, 2003

Mad Cow Scaremongers

Terry Singletary -- A retired machinist and high school dropout, Terry Singletary suffered the tragic loss of his mother to “sporadic” Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in 1997. Desperate to find an explanation for his mother’s death, he has devoted himself to the sad and fruitless task of connecting her death to her diet. Various reports confirm that Mrs. Singletary’s life was claimed by the most common sub-type of CJD (one that accounts for 70 percent of “sporadic” cases). Sporadic CJD, unlike its newer “variant,” is not linked to meat.

As the self-appointed international coordinator of CJD Watch, an organization he co-founded with social worker Deborah Oney, Singletary is cited in media reports as an apparent expert on tracking mad cow disease. This despite his lack of formal education and the absence for support from any credible academic, medical or scientific authority. His sensationalist allegations about the safety of U.S. beef have found their way into hundreds of newspapers and broadcasts. Singletary moderates a mad-cow discussion forum run by a vegetarian activist group; his contributions account for more than half the traffic on the “BSE-L” mailing list, which is generally read by real scientists. Animal rights activists and other food-scare artists frequently refer to him as “Dr. Terry Singletary,” apparently an honorary degree as he has yet to finish high school.

Like many activists, Singletary ignores overwhelming epidemiological and laboratory evidence that rules out a connection between sporadic CJD and beef. Relying entirely on shallow circumstantial evidence and frequent repetition of claims which have been publicly refuted as false, he also blindly insists upon a mad-cow with Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Lou Gehrig’s disease. His specific allegations have been clearly refuted by Centers for Disease Countrol and Prevention scientists in the journal Neurology.

http://www.neurology.org/cgi/eletters/60/2/176


http://www.consumerfreedom.com/article_detail.cfm/article/138





Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734. Vol. 285 No. 6, February 14, 2001 JAMA

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

To the Editor: In their Research Letter, Dr Gibbons and colleagues1 reported that the annual US death rate due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been stable since 1985. These estimates, however, are based only on reported cases, and do not include misdiagnosed or preclinical cases. It seems to me that misdiagnosis alone would drastically change these figures. An unknown number of persons with a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in fact may have CJD, although only a small number of these patients receive the postmortem examination necessary to make this diagnosis. Furthermore, only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies should be reportable nationwide and internationally.

Terry S. Singeltary, Sr Bacliff, Tex

1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA. 2000;284:2322-2323. FREE FULL TEXT

http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/extract/285/6/733?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=singeltary&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT


http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/285/6/733?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=singeltary&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT


2 January 2000

British Medical Journal

U.S. Scientist should be concerned with a CJD epidemic in the U.S., as well

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/320/7226/8/b#6117


15 November 1999

British Medical Journal

vCJD in the USA * BSE in U.S.

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/319/7220/1312/b#5406




LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL


Volume 3, Number 8 01 August 2003


Newsdesk


Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America


Xavier Bosch


My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.


49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from chronic wasting disease (CWD)the relative of mad cow disease seen among deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish search did not lead him to the smoking gun linking CWD to a similar disease in North American people, it did uncover a largely disappointing situation.


Singeltary was greatly demoralised at the few attempts to monitor the occurrence of CJD and CWD in the USA. Only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal TSEs should be reportable nationwide and internationally, he complained in a letter to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source.


Until recently, CWD was thought to be confined to the wild in a small region in Colorado. But since early 2002, it has been reported in other areas, including Wisconsin, South Dakota, and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Indeed, the occurrence of CWD in states that were not endemic previously increased concern about a widespread outbreak and possible transmission to people and cattle. To date, experimental studies have proven that the CWD agent can be
transmitted to cattle by intracerebral inoculation and that it can cross the mucous membranes of the digestive tract to initiate infection in lymphoid tissue before invasion of the central nervous system. Yet the plausibility of CWD spreading to people has remained elusive.


Part of the problem seems to stem from the US surveillance system. CJD is only reported in those areas known to be endemic foci of CWD. Moreover, US authorities have been criticised for not having performed enough prionic tests in farm deer and elk. Although in November last year the US Food and Drug Administration issued a directive to state public-health and agriculture officials prohibiting material from CWD-positive animals from being used as an ingredient in feed for any animal species, epidemiological control and research in the USA has been quite different from the situation in the UK and Europe regarding BSE.


Getting data on TSEs in the USA from the government is like pulling teeth, Singeltary argues. You get it when they want you to have it, and only what they want you to have.


Norman Foster, director of the Cognitive Disorders Clinic at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI, USA), says that current surveillance of prion disease in people in the USA is inadequate to detect whether CWD is occurring in human beings; adding that, the cases that we know about are reassuring, because they do not suggest the appearance of a new variant of CJD in the USA or atypical features in patients that might be exposed to CWD. However, until we establish a system that identifies and analyses a high proportion of suspected prion disease cases we will not know for sure. The USA should develop a system modelled on that established in the UK, he points out.


Ali Samii, a neurologist at Seattle VA Medical Center who recently reported the cases of three hunterstwo of whom were friendswho died from pathologically confirmed CJD, says that at present there are insufficient data to claim transmission of CWD into humans; adding that [only] by asking [the questions of venison consumption and deer/elk hunting] in every case can we collect suspect cases and look into the plausibility of transmission further. Samii argues that by making both doctors and hunters more aware of the possibility of prions spreading through eating venison, doctors treating hunters with dementia can consider a possible prion disease, and doctors treating CJD patients will know to ask whether they ate venison.


CDC spokesman Ermias Belay says that the CDC will not be investigating the [Samii] cases because there is no evidence that the men ate CWD-infected meat. He notes that although the likelihood of CWD jumping the species barrier to infect humans cannot be ruled out 100% and that [we] cannot be 100% sure that CWD does not exist in humans & the data seeking evidence of CWD transmission to humans have been very limited.



http://infection.thelancet.com/journal/journal.isa




Book

The Pathological Protein

Publisher Springer New York DOI 10.1007/b97488 Copyright 2003 ISBN 978-0-387-95508-7 (Print) 978-0-387-21755-0 (Online) DOI 10.1007/0-387-21755-X_14 Pages 223-237 Subject Collection Humanities, Social Sciences and Law SpringerLink

Laying Odds

snip...

Answering critics like Terry Singeltary, who feels that the U.S. under- counts CJD, Schonberger conceded that the current surveillance system has errors but stated that most of the errors will be confined to the older population.

snip...

http://www.springerlink.com/content/r2k2622661473336/


http://books.google.com/books?id=ePbrQNFrHtoC&pg=PA223&lpg=PA223&dq=SINGELTARY+pathological+protein+it


2006

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

This transcripts has not been edited or corrected, but appears as received from the commercial transcribing service. Accordingly, the food and Drug Administration makes no representation as to its accuracy.

Meeting of:

TRANSMISSIBLE

SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES

ADVISORY COMMITTEE

September 18, 2006

There is a growing number of human CJD cases, and they were presented last week in San Francisco by Luigi Gambatti(?) from his CJD surveillance collection.

He estimates that it may be up to 14 or 15 persons which display selectively SPRPSC and practically no detected RPRPSC proteins.

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/transcripts/1006-4240t1.htm

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/transcripts/2006-4240t1.pdf


2008

I ask Professor Kong ;

Thursday, December 04, 2008 3:37 PM Subject: RE: re--Chronic Wating Disease (CWD) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies (BSE): Public Health Risk Assessment

''IS the h-BSE more virulent than typical BSE as well, or the same as cBSE, or less virulent than cBSE? just curious.....''

Professor Kong reply ;

.....snip

''As to the H-BSE, we do not have sufficient data to say one way or another, but we have found that H-BSE can infect humans. I hope we could publish these data once the study is complete. Thanks for your interest.''

Best regards,

Qingzhong Kong, PhD Associate Professor Department of Pathology Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106 USA

END...TSS

I look forward to further transmission studies, and a true ENHANCED BSE/atypical BSE surveillance program put forth testing all cattle for human and animal consumption for 5 years. a surveillance program that uses the most sensitive TSE testing, and has the personnel that knows how to use them, and can be trusted. I look forward to a stringent mad cow feed ban being put forth, and then strictly enforced. we need a forced, not voluntary feed ban, an enhanced feed ban at that, especially excluding blood. we need some sort of animal traceability. no more excuses about privacy. if somebody is putting out a product that is killing folks and or has the potential to kill you, then everybody needs to know who they are, and where that product came from. same with hospitals, i think medical incidents in all states should be recorded, and made public, when it comes to something like a potential accidental transmission exposure event. so if someone is out there looking at a place to go have surgery done, if you have several hospitals having these type 'accidental exposure events', than you can go some place else. it only makes sense. somewhere along the road, the consumer lost control, and just had to take whatever they were given, and then charged these astronomical prices. some where along the line the consumer just lost interest, especially on a long incubating disease such as mad cow disease i.e. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy. like i said before, there is much more to the mad cow story than bovines and eating a hamburger, we must start focusing on all TSE in all species. ...TSS

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/02/atypical-bse-north-america-update.html




SPORADIC CJD CASES RISING IN U.S.A 2009 UPDATE

Monday, April 20, 2009

National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined1 (December 31, 2008)

April 20, 2009

National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined1 (December 31, 2008)

National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined1

(December 31, 2008)

Year Total Referrals2 Prion Disease Sporadic Familial Iatrogenic vCJD

1996 & earlier 42 32 28 4 0 0

1997 115 68 59 9 0 0

1998 93 53 45 7 1 0

1999 115 69 61 8 0 0

2000 151 103 89 14 0 0

2001 210 118 108 9 0 0

2002 258 147 123 22 2 0

2003 273 176 135 41 0 0

2004 335 184 162 21 0 13

2005 346 193 154 38 1 0

2006 380 192 159 32 0 14

2007 370 212 185 26 0 0

2008 383 228 182 23 0 0

TOTAL 30715 17756 1490 254 4 2

1 Listed based on the year of death or, if not available, on year of referral; 2 Cases with suspected prion disease for which brain tissue and/or blood (in familial cases) were submitted; 3 Disease acquired in the United Kingdom; 4 Disease acquired in Saudi Arabia; 5 Includes 20 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 17 inconclusive cases; 6 Includes 25 cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.

Rev 2/13/09 National


http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/pdf/case-table.pdf


http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/resources-casereport.html


http://www.aan.com/news/?event=read&article_id=4397&page=72.45.45



*5 Includes 20 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 17 inconclusive cases; *6 Includes 25 cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.


Greetings,

it would be interesting to know what year these atypical cases occurred, as opposed to lumping them in with the totals only.

are they accumulating ?

did they occur in one year, two years, same state, same city ?

location would be very interesting ?

age group ?

sex ?

how was it determined that nvCJD was ruled out ?

from 1997, the year i started dealing with this nightmare, there were 28 cases (per this report), up until 2007 where the total was 185 cases (per this report), and to date 2008 is at 182. a staggering increase in my opinion, for something that just happens spontaneously as some would have us believe. i don't believe it, not in 85%+ of all sporadic CJD cases. actually, i do not believe yet that anyone has proven that any of the sporadic CJD cases have been proven to be a spontaneous misfolding of a protein. there are many potential routes and sources for the sporadic CJD's. ...TSS

please see full text here ;

http://prionunitusaupdate2008.blogspot.com/2009/04/national-prion-disease-pathology.html


don't forget, in people 55 and older, it's 1 in 9,000. the officials seem to forget about that when speaking with the media.

The statistical incidence of CJD cases in the United States has been revised to reflect that there is one case per 9000 in adults age 55 and older. Eighty-five percent of the cases are sporadic, meaning there is no known cause at present.

http://www.cjdfoundation.org/fact.html


http://cjdusa.blogspot.com/


OH, and i might add, confusious is confused again.

IN the states where CJD is only reportable in a certain age group i.e. say only reportable in 55 and younger, how would there ever be an accurate count ???

Connecticut Reportable For under 55 within 12 hours

http://www.ct.gov/dph/lib/dph/infectious_diseases/ctepinews/vol29no1.pdf


In dealing with the news media and public about CJD, it is important to avoid confusion between vCJD and the near half-dozen cases of sporadic CJD that occur in NC each year. Confirmation by brain tissue examination of anyone with suspected CJD/vCJD who is less than 55 years of age is even more important.3

3. “Questions and Answers Regarding Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD),” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4 January 2007,

www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/vcjd/qa.htm#surveillance.


http://www.epi.state.nc.us/epi/gcdc/manual/diseasenotes/CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB%20DISEASE_DN.pdf


SO, if CJD is not reportable in some states over age 55, and the rate of CJD in 55 and older is 1 in 9,000, then what is the true count if all states reported it ??? human and animal TSEs and 'friendly fire' i.e. iatrogenic, know no age groups. so why put one on it, and continue to believe in this UKBSEnvCJD only theory $$$


Monday, May 11, 2009

Rare BSE mutation raises concerns over risks to public health

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/05/rare-bse-mutation-raises-concerns-over.html



Elsevier Editorial System(tm) for The Lancet Infectious Diseases Manuscript Draft Manuscript Number: Title: HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease and the UKBSEnvCJD only theory Article Type: Personal View Corresponding Author: Mr. Terry S. Singeltary, Corresponding Author's Institution: na First Author: Terry S Singeltary, none Order of Authors: Terry S Singeltary, none; Terry S. Singeltary

Abstract:

TSEs have been rampant in the USA for decades in many species, and they all have been rendered and fed back to animals for human/animal consumption. I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2007. snip...

see full text 31 pages ;

http://www.regulations.gov/fdmspublic/ContentViewer?objectId=090000648027c28e&disposition=attachment&contentType=pdf


Friday, November 30, 2007

CJD QUESTIONNAIRE USA CWRU AND CJD FOUNDATION

http://cjdquestionnaire.blogspot.com/


The statistical incidence of CJD cases in the United States has been revised to reflect that there is one case per 9000 in adults age 55 and older. Eighty-five percent of the cases are sporadic, meaning there is no known cause at present.

http://www.cjdfoundation.org/fact.html


Attending Dr.: Date / Time Admitted : 12/14/97 1228

UTMB University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas 77555-0543 (409) 772-1238 Fax (409) 772-5683 Pathology Report

FINAL AUTOPSY DIAGNOSIS Autopsy' Office (409)772-2858

FINAL AUTOPSY DIAGNOSIS

I. Brain: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Heidenhain variant.

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2008/07/heidenhain-variant-creutzfeldt-jakob.html





ALL human TSE of ALL ages must be made reportable in every state and Internationally. ...TSS





Monday, October 19, 2009

Atypical BSE, BSE, and other human and animal TSE in North America Update October 19, 2009

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/10/atypical-bse-bse-and-other-human-and.html


Sunday, September 6, 2009

MAD COW USA 1997 SECRET VIDEO

http://madcowusda.blogspot.com/2009/09/mad-cow-usa-1997-video.html


U.S.A. HIDING MAD COW DISEASE VICTIMS AS SPORADIC CJD ? see video at bottom

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/07/usa-hiding-mad-cow-disease-victims-as.html


DAMNING TESTIMONY FROM STANLEY PRUSINER THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNER ON PRIONS SPEAKING ABOUT ANN VENEMAN see video

http://maddeer.org/video/embedded/prusinerclip.html


CVM Annual Report Fiscal Year 2008: October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008

PUTTING LIPSTICK ON A PIG AND TAKING HER TO A DANCE...TSS

BSE Feed Rule Enforcement: A Decade of Success OFF TO A FAST START

http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2008/06/texas-firm-recalls-cattle-heads-that.html


2009 UPDATE ON ALABAMA AND TEXAS MAD COWS 2005 and 2006

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2006/08/bse-atypical-texas-and-alabama-update.html


Sent: Tuesday, November 03, 2009 9:07 PM

CONFIRMED BSE RELATED

Subject: [BSE-L] re-FOIA REQUEST ON FEED RECALL PRODUCT contaminated with prohibited material Recall # V-258-2009 and Recall # V-256-2009 (CONFIRMED BSE RELATED, BOTH INCIDENCES)


http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2009/11/re-foia-request-on-feed-recall-product.html



Thursday, November 05, 2009

Incidence and spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease variants with mixed phenotype and co-occurrence of PrPSc types: an updated classification


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/11/incidence-and-spectrum-of-sporadic.html


An Unusual Case of Variant CJD 18 December 2009

A Case Report published in this week's The Lancet, written by Professor John Collinge, MRC Prion Unit and National Prion Clinic, UCL Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, reports the particular genetic make-up of a 30-year old man who has died of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). The case report suggests that there could be other people with the condition who at the moment have no symptoms.

vCJD is caused by infectious agents called prions, which are made primarily of protein. The prions which cause vCJD are the same as those that cause bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, also known as mad cow disease) in cows. Prion diseases affect the structure of the brain or other neural tissue, and all are currently untreatable and eventually fatal. Disease-causing prions are thought to consist of abnormally folded proteins that spread by encouraging the normal healthy prion protein found on the surface of most cells in the body to change shape. Prion diseases share similar disease mechanisms with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and other neurodegenerative brain diseases.

The 30-year-old man was admitted to hospital in June, 2008, with a 13-month history of personality change, progressive unsteadiness, and intellectual decline. He complained of severe leg pain and poor memory. Two months later he developed visual hallucinations. His symptoms worsened over the next three months. An MRI scan and other tests led to a diagnosis of vCJD. The man died in January 2009.

The case is unusual because tests showed the man had a particular genotype at his human prion protein gene (PRNP 129 codon), which can code for the amino acids valine (V) or methionine (M). People can be VV (homozygous), MM (again homozygous), or MV (heterozygous). Since 1994, around 200 cases of vCJD have been identified worldwide, and all those tested have been MM homozygous. However, the man in this Case Report was heterozygous.

Other prion diseases such as kuru or CJD associated with the use of pituitary hormones tend to have longer incubation periods in people who are PRNP heterozygous than those who are MM homozygous. The authors have recently reported some heterozygous patients with kuru had been incubating the disease over 50 years. Thus the authors believe there could be other cases like this one in which people are infected with vCJD but experiencing a long incubation period.

The authors say:

"The majority of the UK population have potentially been exposed to BSE prions but the extent of clinically silent infection remains unclear. About a third of the UK population are PRNP codon 129 methionine homozygous. If individuals with other genotypes are similarly susceptible to developing prion disease after BSE prion exposure, but with longer incubation periods, further cases, which may or may not meet diagnostic criteria for vCJD, would be expected in these PRNP codon 129 genotypes."

They conclude:

"However, prion disease susceptibility and incubation periods are also affected by other genetic loci, and the possibility remains that cases of vCJD to date may have unusual combinations of genotypes at these loci, yet to be fully characterised."

Press contact: 020 7637 6011 press.office@headoffice.mrc.ac.uk

http://www.mrc.ac.uk/Newspublications/News/MRC006556


Case Report

Variant CJD in an individual heterozygous for PRNP codon 129

Diego Kaski, Simon Mead, Harpreet Hyare, Sarah Cooper, Ravi Jampana, James Overell, Richard Knight, John Collinge, Peter Rudge

A 30-year-old man was admitted to hospital in June, 2008, with a 13-month history of personality change, progressive unsteadiness, and intellectual decline. He complained of severe leg pain and poor memory. 2 months later he de-veloped visual hallucinations and falsely believed he had an abdominal tumour. Symptoms worsened over the next 3 months. In October, 2008, his score on the mini mental state examination was 26/30. Pursuit eye movements were saccadic. He had a pout reflex. There was mild ataxia in the arms. His legs were severely ataxic with brisk tendon reflexes and a left extensor plantar response. He needed two crutches to walk. Medical history included tonsillectomy and removal of a cervical lymph node 15 years previously but he had never had a blood trans-fusion or received implantation of other human tissues.

EEG showed slow wave activity. CSF protein, glucose, and cell count were normal but the 14-3-3 protein was positive. MRI of the brain was consistent with the pulvinar sign (figure A). Although not all neuroradiologists con-sulted considered the pulvinar sign positive, quantitative assessment showed symmetrical higher signal in the pul-vinar nuclei than the caudate nuclei (figure B). Extensive screens for genetic, metabolic, and autoimmune diseases, including those induced by neoplasia, were negative. PRNP analysis did not show any known disease-associated mutations; codon 129 was heterozygous. A clinical diag-nosis of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was made on the basis of a characteristic clinical onset and progres-sion, exclusion of other diagnoses, and MRI findings. Sporadic CJD was judged unlikely given the combination of young age, clinical features, MRI findings, and absence of pseudoperiodic complexes on EEG. His carers did not want further investigation. His condition deteriorated and he died in January, 2009. Autopsy was not done.

Human prion diseases have acquired, sporadic, and inherited aetiologies, show wide phenotypic heterogeneity, and are associated with propagation of infectious prions of many distinct strain types.1 Since 1994, about 200 cases of vCJD, causally related to exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions, have been identified world-wide. vCJD is generally seen in young adults, has charac-teristic neuropathological features and tissue distribution of infectivity, and a distinctive type 4 (London classifica-tion) molecular strain type.1 A polymorphism at codon 129 (encoding methionine or valine) of the human prion protein gene (PRNP), constitutes a powerful susceptibility factor in all types of prion disease. In vCJD, every case genotyped to date has been methionine homozygous. In the other acquired prion diseases, cases have occurred in all genotypes but with different mean incubation periods,1 which can span decades;2 PRNP codon 129 heterozygotes generally have the longest incubation periods. There is a report of a recipient of a blood transfusion from a donor incubating vCJD who died of unrelated causes but showed signs of prion infection at autopsy and was PRNP codon 129 heterozygous.3 Animal studies have suggested that different clinicopathological phenotypes could occur in people with various PRNP codon 129 genotypes.4,5 The majority of the UK population have potentially been exposed to BSE prions but the extent of clinically silent infection remains unclear. About a third of the UK population are PRNP codon 129 methionine homozygous. If individuals with other genotypes are similarly susceptible to developing prion disease after BSE prion exposure, but with longer incubation periods, further cases, which may or may not meet diagnostic criteria for vCJD, would be expected in these PRNP codon 129 genotypes. However, prion disease susceptibility and incubation periods are also affected by other genetic loci, and the possibility remains that cases of vCJD to date may have unusual combinations of genotypes at these loci, yet to be fully characterised.

Figure: MRI (A) Increased signal intensity in the pulvinar nucleus bilaterally (arrow). (B) MR signal intensity in the pulvinar (Pu) is higher than in the head of the caudate nuclei (C), putamen (P), and right frontal white matter (FWM).

Contributors

All authors were involved in discussion about diagnosis, care of the patient, and preparation of the report. Written consent to publish was obtained.

Conflicts of interest

JC is a director and shareholder of D-Gen Ltd, an academic spin-out company in the field of prion disease diagnosis, decontamination, and therapy. The other authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

1 Collinge J. Prion diseases of humans and animals: their causes and molecular basis. Annu Rev Neurosci 2001; 24: 519-50.

2 Collinge J, Whitfield J, McKintosh E, et al. Kuru in the 21st century-an acquired human prion disease with very long incubation periods. Lancet 2006; 367: 2068-74.

3 Peden AH, Head MW, Ritchie DL, Bell JE, Ironside JW. Preclinical vCJD after blood transfusion in a PRNP codon 129 heterozygous patient. Lancet 2004; 364: 527-29.

4 Asante E, Linehan J, Gowland I, et al. Dissociation of pathological and molecular phenotype of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in transgenic human prion protein 129 heterozygous mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103: 10759-64.

5 Wadsworth JD, Asante E, Desbruslais M, et al. Human prion protein with valine 129 prevents expression of variant CJD phenotype. Science 2004; 306: 1793-96.

http://press.thelancet.com/vcjd.pdf


Monday, December 14, 2009

Similarities between Forms of Sheep Scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Are Encoded by Distinct Prion Types


http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2009/12/similarities-between-forms-of-sheep.html


Saturday, December 05, 2009

Molecular Model of Prion Transmission to Humans


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/12/molecular-model-of-prion-transmission.html


Tuesday, August 11, 2009

Characteristics of Established and Proposed Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Variants


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/08/characteristics-of-established-and.html



Friday, December 11, 2009

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease causing a 2-years slowly progressive isolated dementia


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/12/sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.html



Sunday, August 09, 2009

CJD...Straight talk with...James Ironside...and...Terry Singeltary... 2009


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/08/cjdstraight-talk-withjames.html



Thursday, December 17, 2009

An Unusual Case of Variant CJD 18 December 2009


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/12/unusual-case-of-variant-cjd-18-december.html


(American Journal of Pathology. 2009;175:2566-2573.) © 2009 American Society for Investigative Pathology DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2009.090623


Similarities between Forms of Sheep Scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Are Encoded by Distinct Prion Types


Wiebke M. Wemheuer*, Sylvie L. Benestad, Arne Wrede*, Ulf Schulze-Sturm*, Wilhelm E. Wemheuer, Uwe Hahmann*, Joanna Gawinecka, Ekkehard Schütz, Inga Zerr, Bertram Brenig, Bjørn Bratberg, Olivier Andréoletti¶ and Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer* From the Prion and Dementia Research Unit,* Department of Neuropathology, and the National Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Reference Center, Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany; the Department of Pathology, National Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway; the Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty for Agricultural Sciences, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany; and Animal Health,¶ Interactions Hôte Agent Pathogène, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, Toulouse, France

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as scrapie in sheep, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, and bovine sporadic encephalopathy in cattle are characterized by the accumulation of a misfolded protein: the pathological prion protein. Ever since bovine sporadic encephalopathy was discovered as the likely cause of the new variant of CJD in humans, parallels between human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies must be viewed under the aspect of a disease risk for humans. In our study we have compared prion characteristics of different forms of sheep scrapie with those of different phenotypes of sporadic CJD. The disease characteristics of sporadic CJD depend considerably on the prion type 1 or 2. Our results show that there are obvious parallels between sporadic CJD type 1 and the so-called atypical/Nor98 scrapie. These parelleles apply to the deposition form of pathological prion protein in the brain, detected by the paraffin-embedded-tissue blot and the prion aggregate stability with regard to denaturation by the chaotropic salt guanidine hydrochloride. The same applies to sporadic CJD type 2 and classical scrapie. The observed parallels between types of sporadic CJD and types of sheep scrapie demonstrate that distinct groups of prion disease exist in different species. This should be taken into consideration when discussing interspecies transmission.

http://ajp.amjpathol.org/cgi/content/abstract/175/6/2566


snip...

UPDATE ON THIS STUDY, further into this study ;

Similarities between Forms of Sheep Scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Are Encoded by Distinct Prion Types

snip...

Different Scrapie Prion Types Show Similarities to Human Prion Types: PrPsc Deposition Pattern and Western Blot Results

After proteinase K-digestion and Western blot analysis, two different prion protein types were detectable in clinically distinct human Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases.30 Depending on the PrPSc types 1 or 2 (Figure 1C) a difference in the form of PrPSc aggregates and the neuroanatomical distribution in the brain could be observed similar to differences identified in sheep scrapie. In patients with CJD that accumulate PrPSc type 1, reticular/synaptic were detected in cortical structures (Figure 3F), subcortical nuclei, and the cerebellar cortex (Figure 4D). By contrast, prion aggregates in patients accumulating PrPSc type 2 appeared to be complex as they displayed in particular perivacuolar, intra- and perineuronal, and/or plaque-like forms (Figures 3C and 5B). These differences concerning the deposition form of PrPSc aggregates were independent of the methionine/valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP. The topographical pattern of PrPSc distribution between these two prion types differed as follows: type 1 deposits were typically restricted to gray matter structures, while all type 2 patients showed deposits in the white matter. In patients with type 1 PrPSc the midbrain and brain stem structures were relatively spared, but in patients with type 2 PrPSc brain stem and midbrain were heavily affected. Although these prion type-related topographical differences are not completely identical to those in sheep scrapie, a comparable connection between prion type and deposition pattern is evident.

Aggregate Stability Regarding Denaturation

Similar to scrapie in sheep, the stability of PrPSc aggregates of human sporadic CJD against denaturation with GdnHCl showed two groups: denaturation-resistant and denaturation-sensitive PrPSc aggregates. This property correlated with the prion protein type according to Parchi et al8 and is independent from the physiologically occurring methionine/valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP. By membrane adsorption after GdnHCl denaturation and proteinase K-digestion, human PrPSc type 1 proved to be less stable than human PrPSc type 2. While human PrPSc type 2 was detectable up to GdnHCl concentrations between 3M and 4M, human PrPSc type 1 was stable up to 2M GdnHCl. Neither methionine nor valine at codon 129 in type 1 or type 2 seemed to alter the stability of the prion protein aggregates (Figure 5).

Summarizing the results, striking parallels between human PrPSc type 1 and atypical/Nor98 scrapie as well as human PrPSc type 2 and classical scrapie are observed with regard to PrPSc deposition and stability of the prion aggregates.

Discussion

In humans, different prion types are linked with clinically and neuropathologically distinct prion diseases.8 The present work emphasizes that the differences in deposition characteristics and stability with regard to denaturation between atypical/Nor98 and classical scrapie also account for different prion types. Moreover, the two scrapie types that have been characterized show a number of striking similarities with human PrPSc types in sporadic CJD. Hence, we propose that the existence of different PrPSc types might be a common denominator of prion diseases in humans and animals. Since these two prion types show an across-the-species comparability with similar biochemical and pathological characteristics, it is most likely that they exist due to a different conformational pattern of the disease-related prion protein.

Prion Types Depend on Conformation

The interpretation that the conformation of PrPSc accounts for prion types is supported by different proteinase K-cleavage sites of human prion types9 and the propagation of mutation-associated prion characteristics in human transgenic mice without PRNP-point mutation. 31 However, differences in protein stability as they have been found in this study, provide direct evidence for a conformational distinction between these molecules.32 Further support for the relation between type and conformation is also given by experiments focusing on the size of prion protein aggregates. Using virus removal filters, Kobayashi et al33 were able to show differences in the size of CJD type 1 and type 2 aggregates: PrPSc type 2 forms larger aggregates than PrPSc type 1, independent of whether the disease was sporadic, iatrogenic or acquired. This difference is clearly reflected by the morphology of the PrPSc depositions we have found in sheep scrapie and human CJD. Sporadic CJD type 1 and atypical/ Nor98 scrapie are characterized by fine (reticular) deposits, whereas CJD type 2 and classical scrapie display a complex aggregate pattern, regardless of the respective genotypes at the polymorphic positions of the PRNP that were investigated.

Prion Type Characteristics Versus Prion Strain Characteristics

Structural differences of the disease-associated protein have also been proposed as an explanation for the existence of strains. Partial digestion of the disease-associated protein with proteinase K as well as differences in antibody binding after the protein was partially denatured were used to identify structural characteristics in correlation with strain properties and different clinical TSE forms.23,34,35 It needs to be considered that the kinetics of proteinase K-digestion of PrPSc are markedly influenced by detergent effects in the buffer, demonstrating that the accessibility of the cleavage sites are variable.35 In contrast, differences in the stability against total unfolding of PrPSc seem to be a usable criterion to identify conformational differences or conformational motives. Whereas detergents affect the tertiary structure of a protein by interacting with hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas of protein molecules, chaotropic salts like GdnHCl destroy the hydrogen bonds in -helices and -sheets leading to an irregular coiled polypeptide chain.36 This is in line with the observation that detergents remove prion infectivity only partially, whereas chemicals that destroy secondary structures like chaotropic salts are highly effective. 37 However, detectable differences regarding the stability against denaturation with GdnHCl shown for various prion strains in hamsters seem to be very small compared with the ones that can be shown here for the prion types of human and ovine prion diseases. Strains could thus correspond to structural differences that are less marked than those defining types and are probably constant only under defined conditions. Influences of polymorphisms or interactions with other genetic factors like the promotor region, species-specific factors like the recently detected incorporation of polyanionic molecules into prions,38 glycosaminoglycans or other yet unknown factors of the original host may also lead to different strains in a new host within the prion types of the original species.5,39 The existence of prion types does not exclude the existence of strains. The same variations that account for strains might be the reason for differences in the clinical disease course of the natural host.

Two Different Prion Types also in BSE?

Parallel to human sporadic CJD and our results in sheep scrapie, there is increasing evidence that two prion types also exist in cattle BSE. Two presumably sporadic forms of BSE known as H-type BSE14 and bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy, also called L-type BSE,15 have been described in cattle in addition to typical/classical BSE.40 The small variation in the apparent molecular weight of the unglycosylated band of bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy is considered to be well within the range of classical BSE,41,42 which would leave H-type BSE with a considerably larger unglycosylated fragment in Western blot analysis than the second BSE type. Interestingly, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy converts into classical BSE after serial passages in bovine-transgenic mice,43 although displaying clinically different diseases in cattle.44 From the latter experiment the authors concluded that different strains were responsible for different phenotypes. Obviously the different clinical diseases were generated by agents that belong to a single prion type. These results together with our observations emphasize the need to differentiate strictly between prion types and prion strains and demonstrate that even in cattle BSE, one prion type may contain different prion strains.

Prion Type Displays Parallels in the Pathophysiology of Disease between Species

Biochemical and morphological similarities have been used to draw parallels between forms of BSE and human prion diseases.15 Parallels between species can also be observed with regard to the route of prion infection: in classical BSE, variant CJD, and classical scrapie, all of which presumably belong to one class of prion type (type 2 in humans) according to the observations made above, the oral route of infection has been identified. These TSEs use the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve as an entry site into the brain.29,45,46 This observation suggests that distinct prion types in human and animal TSEs possibly have an impact on the pathogenesis of prion diseases.

Conclusion

As the prion protein is a highly conserved protein in terms of evolution, parallels between characteristics of prion types in TSEs of different species are of interest. In the present study, we report previously unknown similarities between sheep scrapie forms and human sporadic CJD types. We propose that the observed similarities between sheep scrapie and sporadic CJD in humans justify new interspecies groups of prion diseases in which prion types, not prion strains, are the major determinant for prion disease forms. While epidemiology implies that classical scrapie is not related to human TSEs,47 the atypical/Nor98 scrapie risk for human transmission has not yet been elucidated. Currently there is no compelling evidence that sCJD has a different origin than sporadic genesis. However, the finding of prion types with an across-the-species comparability might provide further understanding of the pathogenesis in prion diseases.

Acknowledgments We thank Tatjana Pfander, Nadine Rupprecht, and Kerstin Brekerbohm for their skillful technical assistance.

http://ajp.amjpathol.org/cgi/content/abstract/175/6/2566


hmmm, this is getting interesting now...



> Sporadic CJD type 1 and atypical/ Nor98 scrapie are characterized by fine (reticular) deposits,


see also ;


> All of the Heidenhain variants were of the methionine/ methionine type 1 molecular subtype



http://cjdusa.blogspot.com/2009/09/co-existence-of-scrapie-prion-protein.html



Tuesday, July 29, 2008 Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Case Report

snip...

Heidenhain Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease autopsy case report 'MOM'

DIVISION OF NEUROPATHOLOGY University of Texas Medical Branch 114 McCullough Bldg. Galveston, Texas 77555-0785

FAX COVER SHEET

DATE: 4-23-98

TO: Mr. Terry Singeltary @ -------

FROM: Gerald Campbell

FAX: (409) 772-5315 PHONE: (409) 772-2881

Number of Pages (including cover sheet):

Message:

*CONFIDENTIALITY NOTICE*

This document accompanying this transmission contains confidential information belonging to the sender that is legally privileged. This information is intended only for the use of the individual or entry names above. If you are not the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that any disclosure, copying distribution, or the taking of any action in reliances on the contents of this telefaxed information is strictly prohibited. If you received this telefax in error, please notify us by telephone immediately to arrange for return of the original documents. -------------------------- Patient Account: 90000014-518 Med. Rec. No.: (0160)118511Q Patient Name: POULTER, BARBARA Age: 63 YRS DOB: 10/17/34 Sex: F Admitting Race: C

Attending Dr.: Date / Time Admitted : 12/14/97 1228 Copies to:

UTMB University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas 77555-0543 (409) 772-1238 Fax (409) 772-5683 Pathology Report

FINAL AUTOPSY DIAGNOSIS Autopsy' Office (409)772-2858

Autopsy NO.: AU-97-00435

AUTOPSY INFORMATION: Occupation: Unknown Birthplace: Unknown Residence: Crystal Beach Date/Time of Death: 12/14/97 13:30 Date/Time of Autopsy: 12/15/97 15:00 Pathologist/Resident: Pencil/Fernandez Service: Private Restriction: Brain only

FINAL AUTOPSY DIAGNOSIS

I. Brain: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Heidenhain variant.

snip...see full text ;


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2008/07/heidenhain-variant-creutzfeldt-jakob.html


P.5.21

Parallels between different forms of sheep scrapie and types of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

Wiebke M. Wemheuer1, Sylvie L. Benestad2, Arne Wrede1, Wilhelm E. Wemheuer3, Tatjana Pfander1, Bjørn Bratberg2, Bertram Brenig3,Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer1 1University Medical Center Goettingen, Germany; 2Institute of Veterinary Medicine Oslo, Norway; 3Institute of Veterinary Medicine Goettingen, Germany

Background: Scrapie in sheep and goats is often regarded as the archetype of prion diseases. In 1998, a new form of scrapie - atypical/Nor98 scrapie - was described that differed from classical scrapie in terms of epidemiology, Western blot profile, the distribution of pathological prion protein (PrPSc) in the body and its stability against proteinase K. In a similar way, distinct disease types exist in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). They differ with regard to their clinical outcome, Western blot profile and PrPSc deposition pattern in the central nervous system (CNS).

Objectives: The comparison of PrPSc deposits in sheep scrapie and human sporadic CJD.

Methods: Tissues of the CNS of sheep with classical scrapie, sheep with atypical/Nor98 scrapie and 20 patients with sporadic CJD were examined using the sensitive Paraffin Embedded Tissue (PET) blot method. The results were compared with those obtained by immunohistochemistry. With the objective of gaining information on the protein conformation, the PrPSc of classical and atypical/Nor98 sheep scrapie and sporadic CJD was tested for its stability against denaturation with guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) using a Membrane Adsorption Assay.

Results: The PrPSc of atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases and of CJD prion type 1 patients exhibits a mainly reticular/synaptic deposition pattern in the brain and is relatively sensitive to denaturation with GdnHCl. In contrast classical scrapie cases and CJD prion type 2 patients have a more complex PrPSc deposition pattern in common that consists of larger PrPSc aggregates and the PrPSc itself is comparatively stable against denaturation.

Discussion: The similarity between CJD types and scrapie types indicates that at least two comparable forms of the misfolded prion protein exist beyond species barriers and can elicit prion diseases. It seems therefore reasonable to classify classical and atypical/Nor98 scrapie - in analogy to the existing CJD types - as different scrapie types.

http://www.prion2009.com/sites/default/files/Prion2009_Book_of_Abstracts.pdf


Monday, November 30, 2009

USDA AND OIE COLLABORATE TO EXCLUDE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE NOR-98 ANIMAL HEALTH CODE

http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2009/11/usda-and-oie-collaborate-to-exclude.html


Monday, December 1, 2008

When Atypical Scrapie cross species barriers

http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2008/12/when-atypical-scrapie-cross-species.html


EVIDENCE OF SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AS A RESULT OF FOOD BORNE EXPOSURE

This is provided by the statistically significant increase in the incidence of sheep scrape from 1985, as determined from analyses of the submissions made to VI Centres, and from individual case and flock incident studies. ........


http://web.archive.org/web/20010305222246/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1994/02/07002001.pdf



1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8

Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.

snip...

The successful transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie by natural feeding to squirrel monkeys that we have reported provides further grounds for concern that scrapie-infected meat may occasionally give rise in humans to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

PMID: 6997404


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=6997404&dopt=Abstract


12/10/76 AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTE ON SCRAPIE Office Note CHAIRMAN: PROFESSOR PETER WILDY

snip...

A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie A] The Problem

Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all countries.

The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group (ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss; it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United States, to British sheep.

It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be devised as quickly as possible.

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.

snip...

76/10.12/4.6


http://web.archive.org/web/20010305223125/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1976/10/12004001.pdf



Nature. 1972 Mar 10;236(5341):73-4.

Transmission of scrapie to the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC.

Nature 236, 73 - 74 (10 March 1972); doi:10.1038/236073a0

Transmission of Scrapie to the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

C. J. GIBBS jun. & D. C. GAJDUSEK

National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

SCRAPIE has been transmitted to the cynomolgus, or crab-eating, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with an incubation period of more than 5 yr from the time of intracerebral inoculation of scrapie-infected mouse brain. The animal developed a chronic central nervous system degeneration, with ataxia, tremor and myoclonus with associated severe scrapie-like pathology of intensive astroglial hypertrophy and proliferation, neuronal vacuolation and status spongiosus of grey matter. The strain of scrapie virus used was the eighth passage in Swiss mice (NIH) of a Compton strain of scrapie obtained as ninth intracerebral passage of the agent in goat brain, from Dr R. L. Chandler (ARC, Compton, Berkshire).


http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v236/n5341/abs/236073a0.html



Epidemiology of Scrapie in the United States 1977


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m08b/tab64.pdf


http://web.archive.org/web/20030513212324/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m08b/tab64.pdf



Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Nor98-like Scrapie in the United States of America


http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2009/04/nor98-like-scrapie-in-united-states-of.html



Scrapie USA


http://scrapie-usa.blogspot.com/



Like lambs to the slaughter 31 March 2001 by Debora MacKenzie Magazine issue 2284

FOUR years ago, Terry Singeltary watched his mother die horribly from a degenerative brain disease. Doctors told him it was Alzheimer's, but Singeltary was suspicious. The diagnosis didn't fit her violent symptoms, and he demanded an autopsy. It showed she had died of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Most doctors believe that sCJD is caused by a prion protein deforming by chance into a killer. But Singeltary thinks otherwise. He is one of a number of campaigners who say that some sCJD, like the variant CJD related to BSE, is caused by eating meat from infected animals. Their suspicions have focused on sheep carrying scrapie, a BSE-like disease that is widespread in flocks across Europe and North America.

Now scientists in France have stumbled across new evidence that adds weight to the campaigners' fears. To their complete surprise, the researchers found that one strain of scrapie causes the same brain damage in ...


http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg16922840.300-like-lambs-to-the-slaughter.html



R.I.P. MOM hvCJD confirmed DECEMBER 14, 1997

Monday, December 14, 2009

Similarities between Forms of Sheep Scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Are Encoded by Distinct Prion Types


http://nor-98.blogspot.com/2009/12/similarities-between-forms-of-sheep.html



Tuesday, August 18, 2009

BSE-The Untold Story - joe gibbs and singeltary 1999 - 2009


http://madcowusda.blogspot.com/2009/08/bse-untold-story-joe-gibbs-and.html





Wednesday, December 30, 2009

Is there evidence of vertical transmission of variant CJD ?


http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2009/12/is-there-evidence-of-vertical.html



Alzheimer's and CJD


http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/



Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA

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